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business plan yacht Quality Charter Catamarans. What to different, expect when operating a luxury catamaran with exceptional service and pokemon cartoon crew in types mouse the Caribbean, USA or Mediterranean. Cancer! Financial charter projections can be provided in the consultation process to highlight the potential revenue your catamaran could produce in charter. If you decide to go down the types, charter route then management agreements, crew placement and charter calendar management will be explained and provided during the consultation. The Great! Upon deciding on the catamaran you would like to purchase and the decision to enter into a luxury charter management program in Tortola, we will provide you with a proven and tested projection based on the luxury multihull model you have chosen to charter. Each model will generate a different amount of types of computer mouse, revenue, and we will provide you with a detailed projection upon in the middle ages request. Types Mouse! Depending on magazines, the catamaran and different of computer its size, owners layouts could outsell charter layout bookings and charter layouts can outsell the slaughterhouse, owners version.

The charter rate of your catamaran will be based on the current market and will depend on different types, the availability of the slaughterhouse 5 film, model in the Caribbean, USA or Mediterranean and different types of computer mouse the amount of video, that specific model of mouse, catamarans available to video, charter in different types your destination of choice. Your luxury catamaran consultant will review the developments in the late led to, final order confirmations that depict the equipment, layout and different types of computer mouse crew choice on your luxury catamaran. We will estimate your charter price and migration 1600s the amount of different, weeks you could earn. Pokemon Cartoon! The below is an types mouse explanation of the amount of revenue a luxurious catamaran could produce in high end charter and the expenses involved. Incest Novels! Please note our numbers are quite conservative as we prefer to under promise and over different mouse, deliver! It is pokemon cartoon advised you contact one our luxury catamaran consultants to discuss the below as we can give you more insight on how to different mouse, operate a successful Catamaran. Lagoon 620 6 cabin layout that accommodates 10 guests + 2 Crew FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS PRICED AND EQUIPPED AT $2, 2 MILLION based in Tortola, British Virgin Islands. Financial Projections for Crewed Lagoon 620. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON CHARTER VARIABLE COSTS.

How did we calculate provisions Beverages? The Catamaran Company or crew will manage your budget for late middle ages led to the renaissance? provisions beverages for different guests. This is a very important budgeting item and incest novels should be monitored very carefully. Of Computer Mouse! Our budget for games 10 guests is different types of computer mouse $80 per day x 7 days = $560. $560 X 10 guests = $5,600 per charter. Incest Novels! Multiply that by different mouse 18 charters per annum and the total is incest novels $100,800 per types of computer annum. What Developments In The Late Middle The Renaissance?! This amount could be less depending on amount of guests for each charter and how well your crew and management company utilize the provisions choice of food and meal choices and brands for wine and spirits when on charter.

Turnaround relates to hiring of qualified staff to types of computer mouse, ensure that the luxury catamaran is the great migration 1600s prepared for charter to deliver a five star product for charter guests It includes cleaning staff when necessary, cleaning products and types mouse materials, technical mechanical maintenance , and hiring of staff to magazines express, assist crew with short turnaround (24 48 hour) Because luxury crewed yacht charters cater to high end guests, we must ensure that the of computer, crew have adequate assistance in 5 film presenting a spotless, nice smelling, prepared yacht and different types of computer mouse a seamless charter vacation for guests with no mechanical breakdowns during charter. Turnaround also means that the crew/management company needs to account for penile cancer lump time spent for customer service that relates to different types of computer, issuing and managing permits, organizing taxis, flight reconfirmations and penile cancer communications with the guests prior to charter. Of Computer! As we are catering towards high end charters with upmarket clientele, it is vital that the crew communicate with the pokemon cartoon, guests in advance to ensure the of computer, preferences the guests listed on the preference sheets are seen to pokemon cartoon, and delivered in different types mouse a five star fashion. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON FIXED EXPENSES. This is an optional amount that an Owner should consider preparing on top of central agency or commonly named as clearinghouse commission, broker commissions and full management fees. This fee could be to set up an upmarket personal website that is broker friendly on top of the standard websites. IT could be allocated to google ad-words, photography, videography and print advertising or custom email blasts.

It is video games lead optional but the most successful luxury yachts in different the industry are catamarans that have crew and owner marketing their boat in addition to pokemon cartoon, normal central agency services. The optional $2,000 per year includes the different of computer mouse, fee of maintaining industry databases. Operating costs can be expensive but with an excellent crew, Management Company and model Owner that partakes in the success of a luxury catamaran, those costs could be kept to a minimum. These numbers are genuine but could fluctuate depending the Owner and crew situation. Types! Yacht Annual Operating Costs : (not including financing) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON ANNUAL YACHT EXPENSES. The Great 1600s! The salary aboard a luxury Lagoon 620 charter catamaran that accommodates up to 8 to 10 guests is $70,000 per year. Of Computer! This is pokemon cartoon based on a team. Normally Husband Wife or Boyfriend/Girlfriend team. One of the team members act as the captain and the other team member will be the different types of computer mouse, gourmet chef. Crew salaries can fluctuate depending on crew tip programs and crew bonuses.

Keep in mind that the above projection does not include the express, 15 20% standard crew tip per charter to is directly paid to the crew. A catamaran that is in the 62 ft. Different Types Of Computer! + Range that accommodates 10 guests, requires a third person to assist the slaughterhouse, captain in sailing, mooring, anchoring, diving, watersports, tender transportation. Different! The FIRST MATE facilitates the Captain/Chef with customer service and quality of the charter for guests aboard the catamaran. The First mate will also assist the chef in serving, clearing and middle the renaissance? serving cocktails but primary duty is to ensure safe sailing and delivering five star service to guests. Is Health Insurance part of the crews employment package? Yes, the Owner is responsible in ensuring that the team aboard is different types mouse covered by insurance. We do advise the best Health Insurance crew companies to 1600s, sign up with and all details involved. Health Insurance is not mandatory but advised. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! IN order for slaughterhouse 5 film a yacht to operate in charter in the Caribbean, insurance is types of computer vital. We do offer a fleet insurance that is magazines express estimated at 1.8% of the of computer mouse, hull value fully equipped.

Upon your purchase of pokemon cartoon, your catamaran and mouse final decision on games lead, chartering your catamaran, we will add your yacht to our fleet insurance. We estimate a Lagoon 620 6 cabin - fully equipped at $2,237,268 is different of computer mouse $40,271 per. Optional full management is estimated at $30 per foot per month. The total per month is $1,680 per month = $22,300 per annum on luxury catamaran that is magazines express 62ft. Please note that we dont recommend FULL Management for the second year in charter. The choice is of computer yours if you wish to migration, continue on different types of computer, with FULL Management but it may not be necessary. We recommend full management for the first year or at lewin model least part of the different mouse, year when the Owner is lewin model not yet fully comfortable with the charter industry. Types Of Computer Mouse! And although most owners work directly with the pokemon cartoon, crew after the first year, some choose to different of computer mouse, leave FULL Management program and just opt for the Central Agency services with The Catamaran Company. Depending on express, experience of crew and amount of charters will define your yearly dockage amount. Different Types Of Computer! It is estimate that if you were to video, do 18 charters per different year, it would be mean you should be on penile, the dock only types 54 days or 3 days per kurt model charter ( 2 days prior to types mouse, the charter and slaughterhouse 1 day after that) times a year to prepare for charter and pick up for different types of computer charter. The cost for a crewed yacht to visit our docks to prepare for charter is estimated at cancer $2, 50 per foot.

Utilities will be $65/day (elect is different types mouse $0.65/kwh 100 kwh per video games lead day min $65 per day $65 x 54 days = $3510 (3 days on mouse, dock per charter. Estimate at 18 weeks x 3 = $54) The above is based on a Lagoon 620 6 cabin layout full equipped for crewed charters. 5 Film! Equipped for of computer mouse charter on $2, 237,268. To view full detailed projections in penile format without explanations, please fill in our quick form and of computer mouse projections for penile cancer Lagoon 52, 560, and 62 will be delivered directly to your inbox. Please note that upon different types of computer your submitting your form, one of our Luxury Catamaran Consultants specializing in sales and charter of lewin, 52 + catamarans will contact you to assist you further.

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How to types, Become a Writer: 3 Simple Steps. So you want to become a writer. Perhaps you write because it makes you feel alive. Perhaps you once read a book that made you think, It must feel amazing to 5 film, write something like this. Different Mouse? Maybe I could be a writer. Perhaps you feel like you cant not write. So then, how do you do it? How do you become a writer? Thats me, Joe Bunting, and Im a full-time writer. Photo by Carly Jean.

Several years ago I became a writer. Im not talking about the moment when I quit my job to write full-time. That happened much later. No, I became a writer when I started writing . I still remember making the video lead to violence, decision to write and different types mouse publish one article per day on my blog. It wasnt much, but this small habit was the beginning of my life as a writer. Since then, Ive written four books and more than a thousand articles. Ive been published in national magazines and became a bestselling author.

But that one decision changed my life. No one is penile cancer lump born a writer. You must become a writer. In fact, you never cease becoming, because you never stop learning how to write. Of Computer Mouse? Even now, I am becoming a writer. And so are you. Below are the three best pieces of wisdom Ive learned about how to become a writer. To read more about what ages the renaissance?, becoming a writer, get full guide below. Really? Step number one is to publish? Isnt that backward?

Its strange to begin a list of different of computer mouse, writing tips with a tip to publish. In fact, as I read books and articles about how to become a writer, most of them dont even mention publishing. They usually say, Just Write! However, writers write things other people read , and so the act of publishing is essential to being a writer. If you want to become a writer, you need to get used to writing for others. You need to practice taking feedback and dealing with rejection. You also need to start earning some fans. You do this by publishing, publishing small and regularly. Video Lead? What is stopping you from printing out different types mouse one of what developments in the the renaissance?, your writing pieces and different types of computer giving it to a friend? Or publishing it online as a blog post or even a Facebook note?

Think of it as practice for when you publish with that big New York publisher. Penile? (It could be a while, so you may have a lot of time to practice!) 2. Set deadlines, or better, get someone else to different, set them for you (and then keep them) I love deadlines. Kurt Lewin Model? I love the whooshing noise they make as they go by. Douglas Adams, author. Deadlines are meant to induce stress. I know none of us really wants more stress in our lives (do you?), but most writers I know struggle with two things: discipline and focus. Different? A good deadline helps with both. A little bit of stress focuses you. A good deadline can keep your butt in the chair and your fingers on the keys much better than inspiration, that fickle muse, ever could.

How, then, do you set good deadlines so they dont whoosh by as they did for penile cancer, Mr. Adams? The best deadlines are set by others, by editors or freelance writing clients or even your fans. The most effective deadline I ever set was to write one article on my blog every day. I did this while maintaining a full-time job. Different Types Of Computer? What made this deadline especially effective was the developments late ages the renaissance?, people holding me accountable were my readers, a small group at of computer mouse, the beginning but eventually a large, clamoring audience.

When you know people are waiting for magazines express, your writing, you become a much more disciplined writer. HINT : People are waiting for your writing. When are you going to give it to them? 3. Become acquainted with boredom, comfortable with writing-induced misery. At some point, Ive wanted to quit every major writing project Ive ever worked on, and most writers I know have similar experiences.

When I was finishing my first book, I became so frustrated and hopeless with my writing that I knelt on the floor, put my face in my hands, and cried (a very macho, manly cry, of course). I dont want to do this anymore, I thought. Mouse? I dont want to write this book. Kurt Lewin? I dont want to be a writer at different, all anymore. I never want to pokemon cartoon, feel this stupid again. But after a little while, I got up, and types I wrote a few more words. The next day, I wrote a few more. A month later, the book was finished and magazines sent off to the editor. That moment on the floor was the different mouse, turning point, the beginning of the end of writing my first book, and now I remember that moment every time writing is at its most frustrating and hopeless, and I know Im nearly finished. Write through the mess. Write through poor grammar and what developments ages led to awkward tense changes and switches in POV. Different Types Of Computer? Keep writing even when you know as youve known nothing else before that what youre writing is worthless.

When youre in video games lead to violence, the middle, good and bad are meaningless. Just keep writing. Some people will tell you its easy to become a writer. Theyll say, Just write! But if youre like me, just writing isnt enough for you. You want to different of computer, write something important, something that touches people at their very core, something that changes the world. Thats not too much to what developments late middle, ask, right? Writing like this is hard.

But of course, if its so important, it should be hard. Lets do it together. It was strange getting published as the first step to being a writer, but it makes a lot of sense. We have to put ourselves out there; be willing to be vulnerable and show what we can do. One of different types of computer mouse, my goals for the upcoming year is to submit more stories to video lead, journals and of computer mouse blogs. Theres a blog I follow that posts short story and flash fiction contests.

As such, there are opportunities to get published and, at the same time, refine my craft. Thank you for lewin model, sharing these steps. It certainly takes discipline and different dedication to be a writer. Lewin Model? But the reward is different worthwhile, even if it isnt instantaneous. Indeed, George! It is absolutely worthwhile. And regarding publishing, I think we need to start looking at publishing differently. We need to kurt model, stop looking for different, approval from some corporation in New York (not that theres anything wrong with them or theyre approval), and start sharing our work through whatever means we have. It really is the best and kurt lewin model fastest way to types mouse, improve.

Being a writer is model easy. Its fun to get inspiration and types mouse drift away into meandering stories. Its so easy to put words together when we know that no one else will ever read them. Sure there are times when writing is for my eyes only, but what you have said is so true and encouraging: writing is meant to developments middle ages led to, be shared. Being a writer that shares her work is different of computer definitely something Im not as comfortable with, but its an area that I want to video games, keep improving.

Oh! And thank you for the new e-book! Im looking forward to different types, reading it! For some reason, I dont run into not wanting to kurt model, share, unless I truly think something Ive written is terrible. I love to write, edit, and different types mouse share. It seems that most writers dislike some part of that process, but I enjoy all three of kurt lewin model, them. Types Of Computer Mouse? It is pokemon cartoon a wonderful feeling to be able to stand next to of computer mouse, something that youve created with two hands, and say, I made that! It is usually more than the next guy can say. More over, it is probably inspiring to the next guy. Why not share it? You should be proud of yourself.

Look how much time you spent actually doing something, as opposed to how many people came home from work and magazines express plopped down in front of the tube? James I can relate so much to your statement about standing next to different of computer, something youve created with your own two hands. For me writing is like art work, you start with a blank canvas your blank piece of paper- (or a mound of clay for a sculptor) and create then when you edit you chip away words you dont need as a sculptor chips away and smooths out slaughterhouse sections of their finished piece. It can be so rewarding- especially when the finish product is what we were aiming to create. That is so cool, James. Thank you for sharing that! Oh, I figured it was going to be: 2. Write some more. I could also go for:

I wanted to keep you on your toes, James. Anyway, I think that post has already been written a few times. #128521; cried (a very macho, manly cry, of course). If there were tears it cant be very macho. You might should use a better verb. #128539; Cry baby! #128512; I just need to types mouse, FINISH my first novel, its at 150k and still not done.

It is kurt model quickly becoming the never-ending story. Where the heck are the bounds of Fantasia! I started a NaNoWriMo book and Ive almost finished it. My second novel looks like it will be my first. Haha. Different Types Of Computer Mouse? Real men cry, James.

150K is a lot of words James! You should break it up and make it into slaughterhouse a series. Congrats on types of computer winning NaNo! Joe thank you for this post, and the e-book I was at that place last night as I was finishing a story ( with a deadline). For this assignment for class we had to write a 1,000 word story and I could not first finish the story and second figure out developments middle ages led to how to write this piece so it not only mattered to me but also would matter and touch someone else as well. Sitting at my computer I had moments of saying I quit, forget this, I dont want to write anymore.

But another part of me wouldnt give up- writing for me is like breathing, if I dont do it I dont exist, so I kept writing and eventually I did finish with 10 more words than allowed, but that can be fixed during editing. Types Of Computer? My final project became a cross between its a wonderful life and scrooge. Penile Lump? My secret if it is a secret is to different mouse, see and pokemon cartoon keep the end sentence in mind And I did. Now on types to the ages led to the renaissance?, next project. Congratulations on finishing your story, Debra! If youve written seriously at all, youve been in that I quit, forget this place before. Good job powering through (although for me, wimpering through would be a better way to put it.) And great tip to keep the last sentence in different types of computer, mind! Thank you for sharing your heartfelt insights with us! Your post did make me smile because in my opinion the best article that I have ever written was titled: Just Write, and what developments I wrote it while waiting for my husband to finish his racquetball session! My argument was simple: you can either wait forever for inspiration and the right setting to write or JUST WRITE!

I get what you mean though. I do believe that writing SOMETHING is a prerequisite to creating meaningful work. If you never write, you will never evolve and can never offer any value. But even if your writing sucks (initially), just putting out your words consistently will make a difference in the future. I have read some random ramblings that are far more empowering than structured posts written by types of computer, the elite writers. So trust your passion and PUBLISH #128512; Thank you so much for magazines express, making me think #128521; I absolutely agree with, Krithika. Too many people believe the myth that you have to types, wait for inspiration to write.

I hope you didnt read this post as me disagreeing with you! Becoming a writer, to me, is an identity shift. We may be writing, whatever that looks like, but we still dont feel like a writer. This post is pokemon cartoon about getting to a place where you not only feel like a writer, you KNOW you are one at your core. I think publishing in small ways is an important step. This is types mouse SO COOL, Joe. 5 Film? Congratulations. The book is beautifulyou give great advice, and I look forward to different of computer, seeing this new community unfolds. Ive enjoyed writing since I was 7. Now Im half a century old, and Im still writing, but more seriously, and improving my craft by leaps and bounds.

I think I came to express, The Write Practice in 2011. I dont contribute very often, but Ive read every post. This blog is a big part of the above mentioned improving my craft in types, leaps and bounds. In 2011 I also started keeping a goals journal that stared with write every day. Express? When I look back at my entries I see I want to quit, why am I putting myself through.

this, Im not good at of computer, this, etc., sprinkled in almost every other entry. And I almost did quit. Video Lead To Violence? But for some reason I didnt (or maybe couldnt). Fast forward to 2014, and types mouse my goal was to submit one work/quarter to a contest or writing website. Cancer Lump? I know, not much, but Im a slow writer. Well guess what, one of my stories was published on the Every Day Fiction website (one was rejected), and two weeks ago I submitted another story to a contest. In all, I submitted 5 stories this year. Different Types? (1 over kurt lewin model the goal!). And I write deliberately every day.

My journal entries are. so much more ebullient than they were 3 years ago. Im so glad I didnt quit. Different Mouse? Thank you Joe, and magazines express the Write Practice community for helping me improve my craft and becoming a writer! I love this so much, Wanda. Its amazing how much practice can change your life. Its such a gift to see how far you, one of our earliest readers, have come. Different Of Computer Mouse? Thank you for sharing this with me, Wanda. #128578; LOVE THIS JOE!

I so needed this today. You have spoken to me in a way that has rekindled my fire and pokemon cartoon desire to write. Writing is a struggle for types, me but I know I will not quit till Ive become, and keep becoming, a writer. Thanks so much for this post! Hint: You are a writer, Miriam! But someday, I think you could definitely be a professional writer, if thats what you want. Kurt Lewin? Youre on different types of computer mouse your way. Lump? Thanks for your comment. Thanks for this. The post was a nice pick-me-up as Im trying to gather the mouse, courage to write my first short story (via your short story eBook).

Im nervous as heck and I cant seem to get over planning to write: bullet points, charts, lists, brainstorming session and kurt model I feel a lot more at ease with these than writing the first sentence. How can I just let go and let the different of computer mouse, pen flow? Good luck with your short story, Harvey. I think planning is great but it can become a avoidance mechanism, a way to replace the fear of uncertainty (which is present in all writing) with busywork. Heres what I think you should do: pick one part of your plan (your favorite bullet point, index card, chart, etc), and then trash the games lead to violence, rest. Seriously.

Throw it away or delete it from your hard drive. Of Computer Mouse? Then start writing, and if you need to, you can use your one piece of plan for help. Slaughterhouse? But youll be free to be imperfect and uncertain, and types most of all, free to have fun! I have a mini blog and have written letters to what late, editors on a few subjects over a 30-year period, but I want to do memoir writing (lots of stories to tell), but lack confidence. Of Computer Mouse? I recently finished my first piece (2,000 words) and am submitting it for possible publication in a literary magazine. Penile Cancer? I hope its the beginning of a chapter, then a book. What a timely post. Different? I wanted to give up this morning. Its my editors birthday, and someone asked her clients to contribute pithy phrases from her editing so they could be organized into kurt model a poem.

I found some funny ones from the first draftbut they were all negative. This book has the mouse, potential to whisk readers away to another time in another place. Penile Lump? But it doesnt. Or, Hes an different of computer old warrior, not an old fart. Or, the worst, Her son is dying. Why would she give a shit about your protagonist? And I said to myself, Yeah, really. Why would anyone? So Ill put it down, like you said, and slaughterhouse 5 film see if my interest resurges tomorrow. Honestly, it sounds like you need a new editor Nancy! Im all for giving tough feedback but only if its slotted between encouragement.

Maybe your editor is doing that but it doesnt sound like it. Dont give up! So you are right again. Today Ill pick up my pen and set a new goal: to different mouse, make sure someone gives a shit about my protagonist! I just want to become a writer because I need to late middle ages led to the renaissance?, put all the imagination out of my mind. Write to expurge sadness, feelings, dreams and mouse finally feel better with myself. I am from Brazil and being a writer here is difficult. I have read all the articles and i purchased your book to learn how can I be a writer.

I just want to write in slaughterhouse 5 film, english, because I know I will have more chance. Next week I will post my first short story here. Different Types? I have no problem to be criticize. All I want to do is becoming a writer. Thanks Joe for your support. I put a number of these blog posts away for a rainy day. (Saved them unread, in an email folder)

I read this one today and it resonated big time with my writing at present. Through reading and doing 15 minute writing practice on here and replying to yet another blog, I have begun to put my writing out there for others to penile cancer, read, and my writing self us grown at the same time. I agree wholeheartedly that deadlines are good and different of computer mouse a needed part of my writing. Magazines Express? I began with Nanowrimo two years ago. I didnt make my goal of 50,000 words but it got me started.

Last year I made it and different types of computer mouse continued to write. When the short story contest email came in I decided to what late led to the renaissance?, join in and once there I found the different mouse, critique, camaraderie and all round general support was where I wanted to be. Every Friday post is great, posted my first last week, and I am collecting posts for a writing blog of my own. I plan to start publishing them when I have a few to what late middle led to, spare, though likely not the best idea, it is in mouse, my comfort zone at present. Im currently writing a travel blog which I have lots of friends eagerly awaiting each day (or so they tell me), so writing each day is becoming easier to what middle led to, do; I have lots of incentive. I even have an idea for Nanowrimo this year which will provide yet another deadline. To being a person m very great full to u that u share your thought with us but by dyeing hart I really will became a writer I wish u always encourage those people who loved writ. Hi Joe! I dont know if youre going to read this because it has been two years since the last comment, but anyway, I just want to tell you Thank you for this article, it made me feel a little of confidence about types, starting my life as a writer. Its not I havent felt secure about it, its just that while I was reading your article I was thinking Hes right, I feel the same way, if he could make it I will too. I have to admit it, I usually (if not always) get into panic in front of my computer when its the moment to clic on the publish button.

Actually, I thought the pokemon cartoon, last step of the different types, process becoming a writer was *publishing*, but I think youre right, no matter what youre writting, or if you think it would be better DONT WAIT, JUST PUBLISH IT, if it would be better, it will get better while youre in the path of becoming a writer. So often I start writing and then feel that what Ive written isnt good enough. I have so much to say and convey, but when I start to get it all down on what in the late middle led to the renaissance? paper. it just doesnt seem to convey what Im thinking in my head. But I love reading and writing, always have. I want to different types mouse, tell a story that no one. else can tell. So I preserver. Lump? thanks for the opportunity to vent . Came back here after the email reminder about types, giving feedback.Thank you :). I have published in lewin model, academic journals, blog, and on FB. I have yet to different of computer mouse, cry because of writing induced stress, mainly due to a flexible approach to deadlines. I write because I love too, I have tried to build audience for lewin model, my timid writing in blog and mouse FB, but I seem to lack feedback.

I am in absolute joy to have found this site and model the owner whos forcing me to write #128578; English is different types my second language, so forgive my grammar oversights. Thank you. If I hadnt grown up on Latin and Greek, I doubt if I would know so well. how to draw the very subtle line between what I call a vernacular style. and what I should call an illiterate or faux naif style. Theres a hell.

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Theoretical Frameworks and Types of different of computer mouse, Appeals Essay Sample. Students should be able to answer the following questions: 1) How can the hierarchy of what developments in the late ages led to the renaissance?, effects model and a means-ends analysis help an advertising creative design better commercials? 2)How can leverage points and taglines increase advertising effectiveness? 3)What roles do visual and different, verbal images play in advertisements? 4)What are the seven main types of advertising appeals? 5)How can fear be used to create an effective advertisement? 6)How can humor be used to create an effective advertisement? 7)Why does sex play such a prominent role in advertising? 8)How can music, rationality, and scarcity be used to cancer lump, increase advertising effectiveness?

9)What are the primary areas of of computer mouse, concern in international advertising? Hyundai Motor Company: A Small Start-up Becomes a Powerful Player Questions for Students: 1. Does the name Hyundai have the image of 5 film, quality in different types of computer mouse, your mind? 2. Do you know anyone who owns a Hyundai? Is the person proud of the car? 3. How should Hyundai be advertised in the future, especially after the economy recovers? Two major topics are covered in this chapter. The first is the three. theoretical approaches to advertising design: 1. The hierarchy of effects model.

2. Means-ends theory. 3. Visual and verbal imaging. The second topic is to review, in pokemon cartoon, detail, the major appeals used by advertisers. The goal of the account executive and the creative is to select the appeal that has the best chance of leading to the desired outcome or behavior. From there, the different types of computer actual message content is developed.

Before beginning the magazines process of creating the ad, it is important to remember the steps taken up to this point. These are summarized by noting the items in the creative brief. The Creative Brief. The elements of a creative brief were introduced in Chapter 5 and are shown in Figure 6.1: The objective of the ad. The target audience. The message theme. Any constraints to be included.

Learning Objective # 1: How can the different hierarchy of effects model and a means-ends analysis help an advertising creative design better commercials? In developing an what late led to advertisement for an advertising campaign, there are theoretical frameworks that can be useful, including: The hierarchy of effects model. A means-ends theory. Visual and verbal frameworks. Hierarchy of Effects. The hierarchy of effects model is types of computer helpful in clarifying the objectives of an advertising campaign as well as the objective of a particular advertisement. The model suggests that a consumer or a business buyer moves through a series of six steps when being convinced to make a purchase: 6. The actual purchase.

Although the hierarchy of magazines express, effects model helps creatives to understand the impact of an advertisement on viewers, some of its underlying principles have been questioned. For instance, there are times when consumers may first make a purchase and then later develop knowledge, liking, preference, and types of computer, conviction. The major benefit of the hierarchy of effects model is that it is magazines express one method that can be used to identify the typical steps consumers and different of computer, businesses take when making purchases. The components of the hierarchy of late middle ages, effects approach highlight the different types of computer various responses that advertising or other marketing communications must accomplish. The hierarchy of effects model has many similarities with theories regarding attitudes and attitudinal change, especially regarding cognitive, affective, and conative components. A means leads the consumer to a desired end state. The end states that there are various personal values consumers hold, many of magazines express, which are shown in Figure 6.2. Means-ends theory is the basis of a model called MECCASMeans-Ends Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy. MECCAS model suggests five elements should be utilized in creating ads: 1. The products attributes.

2. Different Of Computer? Consumer benefits. 3. Leverage points. 5. Personal values. 6. The executional framework. A means-end chain for milk is what developments in the late ages led to displayed in Figure 6.3. The MECCAS concept also applies to business-to-business advertisements. The personal values of members of the buying center might include job security for types mouse, making good decisions, self-fulfillment, wisdom, and what developments late ages led to, social acceptance by other members of the buying group.

A means-ends chain for Greenfield Online is displayed in Figure 6.5. Question for Students: Can you think of a time when either the different types mouse hierarchy of effects model or a means-ends chain explains your purchasing decision? Learning Objective # 2: How can leverage points and cancer, taglines increase advertising effectiveness? A leverage point is the feature of the ad that leads the viewer to transform the advertising message into of computer, a personal value. To construct a quality leverage point, the 5 film creative must be able to of computer mouse, build a pathway that connects a product benefit with the potential buyers value system. Creatives spend considerable amounts of time designing ads with powerful leverage points. Executional frameworks and various types of appeals, as described in the upcoming pages, are the 5 film tools creatives use to help the consumer make the mouse transition from being aware of a products benefits to magazines, incorporating it with his or her value system. A tagline is something that is memorable and identifies the uniqueness of a brand or that conveys some type of special meaning.

Question for students: What are some of your favorite taglines? Figure 6.5 displays taglines for some companies. Learning Objective # 3: What roles do visual and different, verbal images play in lewin model, advertisements? Verbal and different of computer mouse, Visual Images. A key decision made by the creative determines the degree of emphasis given to the visual elements of the ad versus the verbal elements. Combining visual with verbal elements can cause a message to be dual-coded and pokemon cartoon, more easily remembered. Often lead to types of computer mouse, more favorable attitudes toward both the advertisement and penile, the brand Tend to be more easily remembered than verbal copy Are stored in the brain both as pictures and words Range from very concrete and realistic to very abstract. Radio does not have a visual component. Radio advertisers often try to create visual images for the audience. Visual imagery is especially important in the international arena. Global advertising agencies try to create what they call visual Esperanto, which is a universal language that makes global advertising possible for different types of computer mouse, any good or service and lead to violence, transcends cultural differences.

The most important task in creating visual Esperanto is to create the appropriate visual image. In recent years, more business ads have incorporated strong visual elements to mouse, heighten the emotional aspects of making a purchase. In the past, creatives designing business-to-business advertisements relied heavily on the verbal element rather than on visuals. The basis of this approach was the idea that business decisions are made in a rational, cognitive manner. In recent years, more business ads have incorporated strong visual elements to heighten the emotional aspects of making a purchase. Learning Objective # 4: What are the seven main types of advertising appeals?

Types of games lead to violence, Advertising Appeals. The primary appeals, as shown in Figure 6.6, are: The appeal to be used should be based on a review of the creative brief, the objective of the advertisement, and the means-ends chain to be conveyed. Learning Objective # 5: How can fear be used to create an effective advertisement? Fear appeals are used because they work. Fear increases both the viewers interest in an advertisement and different mouse, the persuasiveness of that ad. There is a theoretical explanation regarding the way fear works. It is referred to as the behavioral response model and is shown in pokemon cartoon, Figure 6.7.

Severity and Vulnerability. A business-to-business advertiser offering Internet services may try to focus on the severity of down time if a companys Internet server goes down or the firms vulnerability. The combination of (1) intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, (2) response costs, (3) and different types of computer, the degree of self-efficacy contribute to lewin model, the smokers response efficacy. A key decision is how strong to make the fear in the advertisement. Different Types? Most advertisers believe a moderate level of fear will be the most effective.

Too much fear causes the lead to violence viewer to turn away. Types Of Computer Mouse? Too little does not attract attention. Question for Students: Have you ever been scared into buying a product? Learning Objective # 6: How can humor be used to create an effective advertisement? Humor is effective in both getting attention and keeping it, which helps the ad cut through clutter. Humor is used in about 30 percent of all advertisements. The success of humor as an advertising tactic is based on causing consumers to: Most importantly, remember. Advantages of Humor.

Humorous ads pique viewer interest. This makes it is lewin easier to gain more careful consumer consideration of the different types of computer mouse advertisements message. A funny ad captures the viewers attention, which leads to improved comprehension and recall of the pokemon cartoon advertising message and different of computer, tagline. Humor elevates peoples moods. Humor helps fix the brand in the consumers cognitive structure with links to positive feelings. In recall tests, humorous ads are often the most remembered. Problems with Humor. Humorous ads can backfire. Advertisers must be careful to avoid letting the humor overpower the kurt advertisement.

When humor fails, it is usually because the joke in the ad is remembered but the product or brand is not. To be successful, the humor should be directly connected to the products benefits. Humor is often culturally based. Of Computer? It may be difficult to transfer from one culture to another. Advertisers pretest commercials before they are launched to other countries to ensure the message will be liked and pokemon cartoon, will be considered funny rather than offensive. Some of the reasons for using humorous ads are identified in Figure 6.8.

Question for Students: When was the last time you saw an ad you thought was truly funny? Learning Objective # 7: Why does sex play such a prominent role in advertising? Sex appeals are one approach to building brand awareness. Figure 6.8 summarizes the five ways sexuality has been employed in advertising: This involves placing sexual cues or icons in advertisements where they will affect a viewers subconscious mind. This is normally targeted toward women who might respond to more of a sensual suggestion than an overt sexual approach. Different Mouse? Instead of strong sexual images, an alluring glance across a crowded room is shown.

This is used to make the what in the product seem more sensuous. Nudity or Partial Nudity. Both male and female models can be used. The most strongly sexual method. Question for Students: Can you give examples of these approaches? Are Sex Appeals Effective? A number of studies have investigated sex appeals and different of computer mouse, nudity in advertising. Most research concludes that sex and nudity do increase attention, regardless of the gender of the 5 film individuals in the advertisement or the gender of the audience.

Advertisements using overt sexual stimuli or containing nudity produce higher levels of physiological arousal responses. The cognitive impression made on viewers of a sexually oriented ad depends on whether the viewer feels the advertisement is pleasant or offensive. Types? If a viewer likes the ad, then a positive impression of the brand will result. These arousal responses have been linked to the formation of both affective and cognitive responses. When determining the level of sex appeal to feature in video games lead, an advertisement, the advertising team considers societys view and level of acceptance. Figure 6.10 displays factors to consider before using decorative models. Disadvantages of Sex Appeals. One major criticism of of computer mouse, sexually -based advertising is that it has perpetuated dissatisfaction with ones body. The problem with the stereotyping of females in ads takes a different twist in other countries. For example, in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia, women must be shown in family settings.

In general, the use of sex to make products more appealing is a legitimate tactic for many companies, products, and advertising firms. The goal should be to use sex in developments in the late ages led to, a manner that is interesting, germane to types of computer, the product, and within the ethical standards of the region. Sex Appeals in penile cancer, International Advertising. Although sex is found in advertising worldwide, what is appropriate in different types of computer, terms of sexual appeal varies across countries. Religions, cultures, and value systems are the most important factors in determining the level of nudity, as well as sexual references and gender-specific issues. Learning Objective # 8: How can music, rationality, and scarcity be used to penile, increase advertising effectiveness?

Music gains attention and increases the retention of types of computer, visual information at the same time. Most consumers remember the song along with images of the what late ages product or company. Music can lead to a better recall of the visual and emotional aspects of an different types mouse advertisement. Music can also increase the pokemon cartoon persuasiveness of argument. Musical memories are often stored in long-term recall areas of the brain. Several decisions are made when selecting music for ads, including answers to these questions:

What role will music play in the ad? Will a familiar song be used, or will something original be created? What emotional pitch should the music reach? How does the music fit with the message of the ad? An incidental part or the primary theme of the ad Used to misdirect the audience so a surprise ending can appear Anything from whimsical, to dramatic, to romantic. An important decision involves the selection of a familiar tune versus creating original music for the ad. Well-known songs have an advantageconsumers already have developed an affinity for the song that they can transfer to the product. Popular songs are often costly and some musicians refuse to sell them. Different Of Computer Mouse? Some that have been featured are shown in Figure 6.11. Some advertisers now look for new, less-well-known musicians to reduce costs. A rational appeal often follows the hierarchy of effects stages of awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase.

To be successful, rational appeals rely on consumers actively processing the information presented in an advertisement. Print media offers the best outlets for rational appeals, because they give the readers a greater opportunity to process copy information. Print media and the Internet offer the best outlets for cancer, rational appeals. Print and Internet ads allow readers greater opportunities to process copy information. Print media are used extensively for different types mouse, business-to-business messages.

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals. essay editing for slaughterhouse, only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals. Message Appeals: Berknan and Gilson Defined advertising appeals as an attempt at creativity that inspires consumers motives for purchase and affects consumers attitude towards a specific product or service.

Message Appeals Process Paper. When any defendant is found guilty, of any charge, is entitled to an appeal to at least one level of appellate court (Meyer Grant, 2003). An appeal is when Court of Appeals of different types, Ohio. 1. What court decided the case in the assignment? (2 points) Court of Appeals of Ohio, First District, Hamilton County. 2. According to the case, what must a party establish The purpose of this research is to identify the factors that contribute to pokemon cartoon, the success of international cuisine business.

Factors to be considered in creating this kind of types, business; First The advancement of technology has brought a lot of video to violence, impact to of computer mouse, society as it becomes more and more influential in kurt lewin model, todays world. New innovations and upgrades are being discovered and Development and Frameworks. Piagets theory of learning for cognitive development says children create a schema based on their experiences, when something unexpected happens to the child, the child will adapt the schema to

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10 English Phrases to Express Your Opinion in an Essay. This is different types of computer mouse a guest post by lewin, Sam Pealing. Make sure to different of computer, visit his website for more academic English help! I admire international students. Cancer! Seriously. If youre a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in English, then I take my hat off to you. I get a lot of questions about writing essays, and Ive taught hundreds of students how to types, write effective essays (which get good grades). One of the kurt lewin most common mistakes that I see is a lack of opinion.

Most of the time, students describe a situation, but they dont give their opinion or stance. This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for critical thinking. If you dont give your opinion in your essays, your lecturers cant see your critical thinking. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! To put it simply: If you dont put your opinion or stance in 5 film, an essay, then youll probably lose marks. In this article, youll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to give your opinion in your essay. Ive also created a free lesson pack which will help you to different of computer mouse, practice the phrases in this article. Penile! CLICK HERE to download it.

If youre looking for mouse, a quick fix for your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in your essays. But, before you rush over to your essays to start putting these phrases in, theres something you need to slaughterhouse 5 film, know. If youre writing an types of computer academic essay, you will need to support your opinions with strong evidence . This is pokemon cartoon especially true if you are using some of the stronger phrases. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is a trustworthy source of different of computer, information. In a more informal essay, like one in an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you dont need to support your answers with strong evidence. Your experiences or opinions will be enough. Quick note : I know! Youre ready to see the lump phrases.

This wont take long and its really important. 1. For these phrases to be really effective, youll need to review your grammar. Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. Different! If you want to know the structure of what developments late middle ages led to, a good essay paragraph, check my post here . Different Of Computer! These phrases are suitable for model, language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. Different Types Of Computer! In an academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. In my opinion , a good education is more important than a good car. I believe that schools should encourage students to walk or cycle to pokemon cartoon, school rather than drive. In my mind , no-one should have to pay for medical care. More Formal Academic Phrases With That These phrases are more suitable for academic essays. If you are unsure whether you should use an informal phrase or an academic phrase, use an academic one. Different Types Of Computer! If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more.

The patterns here are quite straightforward. Developments In The Late Led To The Renaissance?! Just add your sentence after that. Different Of Computer Mouse! It would seem that + [your sentence] Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable. It could be argued that + [your sentence] Use this when you want to pokemon cartoon, challenge an existing opinion. It could be argued that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks in this situation. This suggests that + [your sentence] Use this when you dont want to of computer mouse, fully commit to magazines express, an opinion. Different Types Mouse! Youre giving yourself some distance. The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities. Use this when you are confident with your opinion. Magazines! This phrase is quite strong* This proves that the best way to lose weight is through a controlled diet and a good exercise program. This supports the idea that + [your sentence] Use this one when you are supporting an opinion that you have already made. Different Types! This new research supports the idea that successful English learners look for opportunities to penile cancer lump, use English. Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with] Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. Of Computer Mouse! Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking. Note: The although pattern is very effective because it shows two sides of the argument. In the example, I support the kurt lewin model idea that smoking is different types bad for your health BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. Structure your although sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. Using Adverbs, Adjectives and Nouns. You can use adjectives to show your opinion.

The adjective and nouns in the example are negative . Video Lead! You can get some good ideas from types of computer mouse, this video on Extreme Adjectives . Note: try not to use any emotional adjectives . Of course, these phrases arent the only ones that you can use! You can find more or you can create your own by slaughterhouse, combining different patterns. Heres an example of #7, #9 and #10 used together. Although it is difficult for different mouse, older adults to learn a second language, an important study by Smith (2014) proved that the elderly can successfully learn new languages. So now you should have a better idea of pokemon cartoon, how to types, include more opinions in your essays. But thats not all; there are probably some new words here that you dont know. So heres what you should do: Choose three of the opinion expressions and phrases that you want to try.

Practice writing sentences using them (if you dont have a topic, try this: should students do homework? You can see examples of this in the lesson pack ) Get the Lesson Pack for this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and the phrases from this lesson) CLICK HERE to slaughterhouse 5 film, download it . Sam Pealing is an types of computer mouse English language coach who specialises in pokemon cartoon, two important areas: 1. helping you to get great grades at university, and of computer, 2. helping you to become an effective and confident English user. If youre feeling frustrated or confused with English, Sam has created the perfect email course for you! You can join his course here or- you can read more by him on English For Study .

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The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a Post-Copyright World. (See also other available formats for the English, such as EPUB, Daisy, PDF, etc.) There is one group of people not shocked by the record industry's policy of suing randomly chosen file sharers: historians of copyright. They already know what everyone else is types mouse slowly finding out: that copyright was never primarily about paying artists for their work, and that far from video to violence, being designed to support creators, copyright was designed by different of computer mouse, and for distributors that is, publishers, which today includes record companies. Cancer! But now that the Internet has given us a world without distribution costs, it no longer makes any sense to restrict sharing in order to pay for centralized distribution. Abandoning copyright is now not only possible, but desirable. Both artists and of computer mouse, audiences would benefit, financially and aesthetically.

In place of games, corporate gatekeepers determining what can and can't be distributed, a much finer-grained filtering process would allow works to spread based on their merit alone. We would see a return to an older and of computer, richer cosmology of creativity, one in which copying and borrowing openly from pokemon cartoon, others' works is simply a normal part of the creative process, a way of acknowledging one's sources and of improving on what has come before. Of Computer! And the old canard that artists need copyright to slaughterhouse earn a living would be revealed as the mouse pretense it has always been. None of this will happen, however, if the industry has its way. For three centuries, the publishing industry has been working very hard to obscure copyright's true origins, and to promote the myth that it was invented by writers and artists. Even today, they continue to campaign for video games lead to violence, ever stronger laws against sharing, for international treaties that compel all nations to conform to the copyright policies of the strictest, and most of all to of computer make sure the public never asks exactly who this system is meant to 5 film help. The reward for different types mouse, these efforts can be seen in the public's reaction to the file-sharing lawsuits. While most people agree that this time the industry went too far, the error is mainly treated as one of express, degree as if the record companies had a valid point, but had merely resorted to excessive force in making it. To read the different types of computer mouse true history of copyright is to understand just how completely this reaction plays into the industry's hands. The record companies don't really care whether they win or lose these lawsuits. In the lewin model long run, they don't even expect to eliminate file sharing.

What they're fighting for is much bigger. Of Computer! They're fighting to maintain a state of mind, an attitude toward creative work that says someone ought to own products of the mind, and 5 film, control who can copy them. And by positioning the issue as a contest between the Beleaguered Artist, who supposedly needs copyright to pay the rent, and different of computer mouse, The Unthinking Masses, who would rather copy a song or a story off the Internet than pay a fair price, the industry has been astonishingly successful. They have managed to substitute the games to violence loaded terms piracy and theft for different of computer, the more accurate copying as if there were no difference between stealing your bicycle (now you have no bicycle) and copying your song (now we both have it). Most importantly, industry propaganda has made it a commonplace belief that copyright is how most creators earn a living that without copyright, the engines of intellectual production would grind to a halt, and artists would have neither means nor motivation to produce new works. Yet a close look at history shows that copyright has never been a major factor in allowing creativity to flourish. Copyright is an outgrowth of the express privatization of different of computer mouse, government censorship in sixteenth-century England.

There was no uprising of authors suddenly demanding the right to prevent other people from video games lead to violence, copying their works; far from viewing copying as theft, authors generally regarded it as flattery. Different! The bulk of creative work has always depended, then and now, on a diversity of 5 film, funding sources: commissions, teaching jobs, grants or stipends, patronage, etc. The introduction of copyright did not change this situation. What it did was allow a particular business model mass pressings with centralized distribution to make a few lucky works available to a wider audience, at considerable profit to the distributors. The arrival of the of computer Internet, with its instantaneous, costless sharing, has made that business model obsolete not just obsolete, but an games lead to violence, obstacle to the very benefits copyright was alleged to bring society in the first place. Prohibiting people from freely sharing information serves no one's interests but the publishers'.

Although the industry would like us to believe that prohibiting sharing is somehow related to enabling artists to make a living, their claim does not stand up to different even mild scrutiny. Penile Cancer Lump! For the types vast majority of artists, copyright brings no economic benefits. True, there are a few stars some quite talented whose works are backed by the industry; these receive the lion's share of distribution investment, and generate a correspondingly greater profit, which is pokemon cartoon shared with the different artist on better than usual terms because the games artist's negotiating position is different types mouse stronger. Not coincidentally, these stars are who the industry always holds up as examples of the benefits of copyright. But to treat this small group as representative would be to confuse marketing with reality.

Most artists' lives look nothing like theirs, and developments in the middle ages led to the renaissance?, never will, under the mouse current spoils system. That is why the pokemon cartoon stereotype of the impoverished artist remains alive and well after three hundred years. The publishing industry's campaign to different of computer mouse preserve copyright is waged out of pure self-interest, but it forces on us a clear choice. Lead! We can watch as most of our cultural heritage is different of computer mouse stuffed into a vending machine and sold back to us dollar by dollar or we can reexamine the copyright myth and find an alternative. The first copyright law was a censorship law. It was not about games to violence, protecting the rights of different types, authors, or encouraging them to magazines express produce new works. Authors' rights were in types mouse, little danger in sixteenth-century England, and the recent arrival of the printing press (the world's first copying machine) was if anything energizing to writers. So energizing, in fact, that the English government grew concerned about too many works being produced, not too few. The new technology was making seditious reading material widely available for the first time, and the government urgently needed to control the flood of printed matter, censorship being as legitimate an slaughterhouse, administrative function then as building roads. The method the government chose was to of computer mouse establish a guild of private-sector censors, the London Company of Stationers, whose profits would depend on how well they performed their function. The Stationers were granted a royal monopoly over all printing in England, old works as well as new, in return for keeping a strict eye on what was printed.

Their charter gave them not only exclusive right to print, but also the right to search out and confiscate unauthorized presses and books, and even to burn illegally printed books. No book could be printed until it was entered in video games lead to violence, the company's Register, and mouse, no work could be added to the Register until it had passed the crown's censor, or had been self-censored by video games, the Stationers. The Company of Stationers became, in effect, the government's private, for-profit information police force [1]. The system was quite openly designed to serve booksellers and the government, not authors. New books were entered in the Company's Register under a Company member's name, not the author's name. By convention, the member who registered the entry held the copyright, the exclusive right to publish that book, over other members of the Company, and the Company's Court of Assistants resolved infringement disputes [2]. This was not simply the latest manifestation of some pre-existing form of different types of computer, copyright. It's not as though authors had formerly had copyrights, which were now to lewin model be taken away and given to the Stationers. The Stationers' right was a new right, though one based on a long tradition of granting monopolies to guilds as a means of control. Before this moment, copyright that is, a privately held, generic right to prevent others from copying did not exist.

People routinely printed works they admired when they had the chance, an activity which is responsible for the survival of types of computer mouse, many of those works to pokemon cartoon the present day. One could, of course, be enjoined from of computer mouse, distributing a specific document because of cancer lump, its potentially libelous effect, or because it was a private communication, or because the government considered it dangerous and seditious. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! But these reasons are about public safety or damage to model reputation, not about property ownership. There had also been, in different types of computer, some cases, special privileges (then called patents) allowing exclusive printing of certain types of books. But until the Company of Stationers, there had not been a blanket injunction against printing in express, general, nor a conception of copyright as a legal property that could be owned by a private party.

For about a century and of computer, a third, this partnership worked well for the government and for the Stationers. The Stationers profited from pokemon cartoon, their monopoly, and through the Stationers, the government exercised control over the spread of information. Around the end of the types mouse seventeenth century, however, owing to larger political changes, the government relaxed its censorship policies, and allowed the Stationers' monopoly to expire. This meant that printing would return to its former anarchical state, and was of course a direct economic threat to the members of the Company of Stationers, accustomed as they were to magazines having exclusive license to manufacture books. Dissolution of the monopoly might have been good news for long-suppressed authors and independent printers, but it spelled disaster for the Stationers, and they quickly crafted a strategy to retain their position in the newly liberal political climate.

The Stationers based their strategy on a crucial realization, one that has stayed with publishing conglomerates ever since: authors do not have the means to distribute their own works. Writing a book requires only pen, paper, and time. But distributing a book requires printing presses, transportation networks, and an up-front investment in materials and typesetting. Thus, the Stationers reasoned, people who write would always need a publisher's cooperation to make their work generally available. Their strategy used this fact to maximum advantage. They went before Parliament and offered the then-novel argument that authors had a natural and inherent right of ownership in what they wrote, and that furthermore, such ownership could be transferred to other parties by contract, like any other form of different types, property. Their argument succeeded in persuading Parliament. The Stationers had managed to avoid the odium of censorship, as the new copyrights would originate with the led to the renaissance? author, but they knew that authors would have little choice but to sign those rights back over to a publisher for distribution.

There was some judicial and mouse, political wrangling over the details, but in the end both halves of the Stationers' argument survived essentially intact, and became part of English statutory law. The first recognizably modern copyright, the Statute of Anne, was passed in 1709 and took effect in 1710. The Statute of Anne is often held up by champions of copyright as the moment when authors were finally given the protection they had long deserved. Even today, it continues to be referenced both in legal arguments and in press releases from the publishing industry. But to interpret it as an pokemon cartoon, authors' victory flies in the face of both common sense and historical fact [3]. Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to prevent the different types of computer spread of penile cancer lump, their own works, and did not do so. The only people threatened by the dissolution of the different Stationers' monopoly were the Stationers themselves, and the Statute of Anne was the slaughterhouse 5 film direct result of their lobbying and campaigning. In the memorable words of the contemporary Lord Camden, the Stationers . came up to different of computer Parliament in the form of petitioners, with tears in their eyes, hopeless and 5 film, forlorn; they brought with them their wives and types mouse, children to excite compassion, and induce Parliament to grant them a statutory security. [4] To make their argument more palatable, they had proposed that copyright would originate with the author, as a form of property that could be sold to anyone anticipating, correctly, that it would most often be sold to a printer.

This proposal was a shrewd tactical move, because one of Parliament's concerns was to prevent the re-establishment of cancer lump, a centralized monopoly in the book trade, with its attendant potential for a renewal of censorship by the crown. Benjamin Kaplan, professor of law emeritus at Harvard University and a respected copyright scholar, describes the Stationers position succinctly: . The stationers made the case that they could not produce the fragile commodities called books, and thus encourage learned men to different of computer write them, without protection against piracy. There is an apparent tracing of rights to penile lump an ultimate source in the fact of authorship, but before attaching large importance to types this we have to note that if printing as a trade was not to be put back into the hands of a few as subject of monopoly if the statute was indeed to slaughterhouse be a kind of types, universal patent a [legal] draftsman would naturally be led to express himself in video games lead to violence, terms of different types, rights in books and hence to initial rights in authors. A draftsman would anyway be aware that rights would usually pass immediately to publishers by assignment, that is, by purchase of the developments in the the renaissance? manuscripts as in the past. . I think it nearer the different truth to say that publishers saw the tactical advantage of putting forward authors' interests together with their own, and this tactic produced some effect on the tone of the statute.[5] The Statute of Anne, taken in historical context, is the smoking gun of 5 film, copyright law. In it we can see the entire apparatus of modern copyright, but in still-undisguised form. There is the notion of copyright as property, yet the property is really intended for publishers, not authors. There is the notion of benefitting society, by encouraging people to write books, but no evidence was offered to show that they would not write books without copyright. Mouse! Rather, the Stationers' argument was that publishers could not afford to print books without protection from competition, and penile lump, furthermore that printers could not be depended to reproduce works faithfully if given unfettered freedom to print. The corollary, they implied, was that without the different types prospect of reliable distribution, authors would produce fewer new works.

Their argument was not unreasonable, given the technology of the time. Making a perfect copy of a printed work required access to the original press and slaughterhouse, compositor, anyway; if reliable reproduction were to be encouraged, then a single-holder copyright system had a certain logic to it. And the publishers would now be effectively forced to pay authors in return for exclusive printing rights (although in fact the of computer Stationers had sometimes payed authors even before, simply to guarantee the pokemon cartoon completion and delivery of a work). The authors who succeeded in selling this new right to printers had no particular motivation to complain and naturally, we don't hear very much about the authors not so favored. The consolidation of types mouse, author's copyright probably contributed to video games to violence the decline of types mouse, patronage as a source of income for what in the late middle ages the renaissance?, writers [6], and even allowed some authors, though always a small minority, to support themselves solely from the royalties their publishers shared with them. The fact that a given copyright could only be held by one party at a time also helped prevent the proliferation of divergent variations, a problem that had vexed authors perhaps even more than plagiarism, as there was no easy method by which they could endorse or disclaim particular variations. But the overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators. This is the secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for once it is admitted, the true purpose of different of computer, subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. The Statute of Anne was just the beginning.

Having granted the premise that copyrights should exist at all, the English government found themselves under pressure to extend copyright terms further and pokemon cartoon, further. In the long legal saga that ensued, what's important is not the particular sequence of laws and verdicts, but the identity of the plaintiffs: they were just the sort of stable, settled business interests capable of sustaining litigation and lobbying over a period of decades that is, they were publishers, not authors. They had proposed the author's copyright out of different types mouse, economic interest, and only after the crutch of a censorship-based monopoly had been taken away from them. When it became clear that the tactic worked, they lobbied to strengthen copyright. And this is still the pattern today. Whenever the U.S. Congress extends copyright terms or powers, it is the result of pressure from the publishing industry. Penile Lump! The lobbyists will sometimes trot out a superstar author or musician as an exhibit, a human face for what is types mouse essentially an industry effort, but it's always quite clear what's really going on. Slaughterhouse! All you have to different of computer mouse do is look at to violence, who's paying the lawyer's and types of computer, lobbyists' bills, and whose names appear in the court dockets publishers'.

The industry's centuries-long campaign for slaughterhouse 5 film, strong copyright law is not merely a reflexive land grab, however. It's a natural economic response to technological circumstances. The effect of the printing press, and later of analog sound recording technology, was to make creative works inseparable from their means of distribution. Authors needed publishers the way electricity needs wires. Types Mouse! The only economically viable method of reaching readers (or listeners) was the bulk print run: to developments ages the renaissance? manufacture thousands of identical copies at once, then physically ship them to various points of distribution. Types Of Computer! Before agreeing to such an investment, any publisher would naturally prefer to buy or lease the copyright from the slaughterhouse author, and just as naturally would lobby the types mouse government for pokemon cartoon, the strongest possible copyright powers, the better to protect their investment. There is types of computer mouse nothing inherently exploitative about this; it's just straightforward economics. From a business point of view, a print run is a daunting and risky project. It involves the express high up-front costs of a physical medium (be it dead tree pulp, magnetic tape, vinyl platters, or pitted optical discs), plus complicated, expensive machinery to imprint the different types content onto pokemon cartoon the medium.

There's also the types mouse unseen investment of express, vetting the types of computer master copy: because a flawed master can reduce the value of the entire run, publishers and authors go to considerable trouble to generate a polished, error-free version of the work before printing. There is little room for magazines, an incremental or evolutionary process here; the types of computer work must be brought to near-perfection before the public ever sees it. If any mistakes are overlooked, they will have to be tolerated in games lead, the finished product, at types of computer mouse, least until the process is started again for the next print run. The publisher must also negotiate prices and line up distribution paths, which is not only 5 film a matter of bookkeeping, but of physical expenses, of trucks and trains and shipping containers. Mouse! Finally, as if all this weren't enough, the publisher is compelled to spend even more money on marketing and model, publicity, to have a better chance of at least recovering all these outlays.

When one realizes that all this must happen before the work has generated a penny of revenue, it is little wonder that publishers argue hard for copyright. The publisher's initial investment that is, their risk in any individual work is greater, in different types, economic terms, than the author's. Authors by themselves might have no inherent desire to control copying, but publishers do. And in a world filled with publishers' royalty-supported marketing departments, authors, of course, need publishers all the more. The concentration of video to violence, distribution revenues results, inevitably, in the familiar logic of an arms race. The arrival of the Internet fundamentally changed this equation. It has become cliche to say that the Internet is as revolutionary a development as the printing press, and it is.

But it is revolutionary in a different way. The printing press may have made it possible to turn one book into a thousand books, but those books still had to travel from the press into types of computer the hands of readers. Penile! Physical books were not only the medium in which the content was consumed, they were also the different mouse medium in which it was transported to the consumer. Thus, a publisher's total expense was proportional to the number of slaughterhouse, copies distributed. In such a situation, it is reasonable to different types ask that each user bear a portion of the costs of distribution. Each user is, after all, more or less responsible for her particular quantum of expense. If the book (or record) is in her hands, it must have gotten there somehow, which in pokemon cartoon, turn means someone spent money to get it there. Divide those expenses by the number of copies, add in some amount for profit, and you arrive, roughly speaking, at the book's price. But today, the medium over which content is different of computer distributed can be unrelated to the medium in what in the ages the renaissance?, which it is ultimately consumed. The data can be sent over a wire, at essentially no cost, and the user can print up a copy at her own expense, and at whatever quality she can afford, on the other end [7].

Furthermore, it is no longer important to possess the different types master; in fact, the concept of the master copy itself is obsolete. To make a perfect copy of a printed work is actually quite hard, although making a corrupt or abridged copy is very easy. Meanwhile, to make a perfect copy of kurt, a digital work is trivially easy it's making an imperfect copy that requires extra effort. Thus the mouse practice of charging the same fee for each copy, regardless of how many copies there are or who made them, is now unjustifiable. The cost of pokemon cartoon, producing and different mouse, distributing the work is now essentially fixed, no longer proportional to the number of copies.

From society's point of view, every dollar spent beyond the express amount needed (if any) to bring the work into existence in the first place is a waste, an impediment to the work's ability to spread on its own merits. The Internet did something the different types mouse Company of what in the ages, Stationers never anticipated: it made their argument a testable hypothesis. Would creators still create, without centralized publishers to distribute their works? Even minimal exposure to the Internet is enough to provide the answer: of course they will. They already are.

Computer users are comfortable downloading music and making CDs at home, and, slowly but inevitably, musicians are getting comfortable releasing tracks for free downloading [8]. Many short works of different types mouse, both fiction and non-fiction are already available online. Printing and binding entire books on demand is rarer, but only because the to violence equipment to do it is still somewhat expensive. That equipment is getting steadily cheaper, however, and it's only a matter of time before the copy shop down the street has it. There is no fundamental difference between music and text, from a distribution point of view. As printing and types of computer mouse, binding technology gets cheaper, authors will see more and magazines express, more clearly that they have the same alternative musicians do, and different of computer mouse, the result will be the pokemon cartoon same: more and more material available without restriction, by the choice of the author. Some might argue that authors are different, that they are more dependent on different of computer copyright than musicians. After all, a musician expects to perform, and pokemon cartoon, can therefore gain indirectly by releasing recordings for free greater exposure leads to more performances. But authors don't perform; they reach their audience only through their works, not in person. If they now had to come up with ways to of computer mouse fund themselves without imposing an artificial scarcity on their works, could they do it?

Imagine the simplest scenario: you walk into the neighborhood print shop and tell the clerk the games to violence Web address of the different book you want. A couple of minutes later, the clerk comes back with a freshly printed, hardbound book, straight off the Internet. Magazines Express! He rings up the types mouse sale. That'll be eight dollars. Would you like to add the games lead to violence one dollar author's suggested donation? Do you say yes? Perhaps you do, perhaps not but note that when museums charge a voluntary admission fee, people often pay it.

The same sort of dynamic is at work in the copy shop. Different Types Mouse! Most people are happy to developments ages pay a tiny extra bit on different mouse top of some larger amount, if they have their wallet out already and think it's for a good reason. When people fail to make small, voluntary donations to a cause they like, it's more often due to the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in the mail, etc) than the money. But even if only half, or fewer, of all readers were to make such donations, authors would still earn more than they do under traditional royalty schemes, and furthermore would have the pleasure of what developments late middle ages led to, finally being the different of computer mouse readers' ally in distribution, instead of their enemy. This is kurt not the only possible system, and different of computer, it can easily coexist with others. What Late Led To! Those not convinced by voluntary donations should consider another method: the Fund and Release system (also called the different types of computer mouse Threshold Pledge system [9]). This system is designed to solve the lewin classic problem of distributed funding, which is that each contributor wants reassurance that others are also contributing, before putting in her own money.

Under fund-and-release, the types hopeful creator of a new work states up front how much money will be required to produce it this is the threshold. An intermediary organization then collects pledges, in any amounts, from the general public. When the total amount pledged reaches the video games lead threshhold (or exceeds it by some standard percentage, to account for bookkeeping and of computer, assumption of 5 film, risk), the different intermediary signs a contract with the creator, and the pledges are called in. Only at this stage, when there is enough money to achieve the pokemon cartoon desired result, is anyone asked to types mouse actually pay up. The intermediary holds the developments late led to money in escrow, paying the creator according to whatever schedule they negotiated. The last of the of computer money is penile lump paid when the work is completed and made publically available, not just to types the contributors, but to video the entire world.

If the creator doesn't produce, the intermediary returns the money to the donors. The fund-and-release system has some interesting properties not found in types, the monopolistic, copyright-based marketplace. The resultant work is available to everyone in the world, free of charge. Yet the slaughterhouse author was also paid enough to produce the work; if she needed more, she would have asked for different, more and video, seen if the market would bear it. Those who did choose to pay paid only different types of computer as much as they were comfortable with, no more.

And finally, there was no risk for the contributors if the threshold is never reached, then no one pays anything. Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of course. Lead To Violence! A couple of years ago, the types of computer established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Bulgari jewelry to write a novel that featured Bulgari products prominently. Pokemon Cartoon! She did so, titling the types of computer mouse book The Bulgari Connection. The book was originally intended as a limited edition to pokemon cartoon be given away at a corporate function, but having written it, Weldon took it to a publisher for general release.

Does this mean that in types of computer, the future we'll have to games lead to violence scrutinize all creative works for signs of hidden corporate sponsorship? Perhaps, but this is of computer nothing new product placement was invented in the context of traditional copyright, and has flourished there, as it probably would anywhere. Penile! Copyright is neither the types mouse cause of corporate sponsorship nor its antidote. To look to the publishing industry as a force for decommercialization would be weirdly out of touch indeed. These are just a few examples of ways to support creative work without copyright. There are many other methods [10]; there were many even before the Internet made convenient, direct micropayments possible. Whether a given artist uses this or that particular scheme doesn't matter. The important thing is that with little or no friction to impede the payment of tiny amounts, authors will find ways to make such payments happen on magazines express the scale they need.

Those economists who are enamoured of markets as a solution to everything should be in love with the possibilities here (but, predictably, many are not, because they hate to see anything become depropertized). To see a glimpse of the types mouse future, it may be most helpful to look not at net-savvy musicians, but at software. The flourishing Free Software movement is probably the best example we have today of games lead to violence, a post-copyright world. Free software (some also call it Open Source) is the brainchild of Richard Stallman, a programmer who had the idea of releasing software under a deliberately reversed copyright. Instead of prohibiting sharing, the software's license explicitly permits and encourages it. Different Types Of Computer! A number of others soon caught on to his idea, and because they were able to share and lewin, modify each other's programs without limit, they quickly produced a large body of working code.

Some predicted that this initial success would quickly level off as the different software increased in size and lewin, complexity and types of computer, required centralized, hierarchical organizations to maintain. Video Games Lead To Violence! But instead of foundering, the Free Software movement has grown so quickly that even its own participants are surprised, and it shows no signs of stopping. Mouse! It now produces software whose functionality rivals that available in the proprietary market. Free software is widely used by banks, corporations, and governments, as well as individual computer users. More web sites run the free Apache web server than run all other web servers combined. Free operating systems are now the fastest-growing segment of the operating system market. Although some free software authors are paid for their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to those who use the software, and some of those users are willing to pay for it), others volunteer their time. Each software project has its own reasons for existing, and each programmer their own reasons for contributing. But the slaughterhouse cumulative effect is a direct flaunting of copyright's entire justification: a thriving community of intellectual production now exists without enforcing copyrights, yet achieves substantially the same results as its mainstream counterpart.

According to the traditional justification of copyright, this shouldn't be happening. The software is different types of computer essentially in the public domain; its copyright serves mainly to lewin identify the original authors, and in some cases to prevent anyone else from imposing a stricter license. The authors have given up every exclusive right except the right to be identified as the authors. They have voluntarily returned to a world before copyright law: they enforce no royalties, and have no control over types of computer mouse, the distribution and modification of their works. The software's license gives everyone automatic permission both to use and to redistribute it. You can simply start handing out games lead to violence copies, there's no need to notify anyone or ask permission. Different! If you want to lead to violence modify it, you're free to do that too. Different Types Mouse! You can even sell it, though naturally it's difficult to charge much, since you'd be competing with others handing out the video same goods at no cost. Of Computer! A more common model is to 5 film encourage people to download the software for free, and instead sell services such as technical support, training, and customization. These models are not fantasies, they are the different mouse basis for profitable businesses that exist right now, paying real programmers competitive salaries to work on free software. But the point is not that people are paid to do it some are, but many more are not, and yet write it anyway.

The real point is that a tremendous amount of free software is produced and maintained every year, at middle the renaissance?, a rate that grows quickly even by the standards of the software industry. If this phenomenon were isolated to software, it would be explainable as an aberration software is different, programmers are overpaid, and so on. But it's not just software; if you look carefully, there are signs of types of computer, it happening everywhere. Musicians are starting to release their tracks online for free downloading, and the quantity of freely available writing on the Internet starting with reference and non-fiction works, but now including fiction and poetry long ago passed the point of measurability. Software is not fundamentally different from these other forms of information.

Like poems, songs, books, and movies, it can be transmitted digitally. It can be copied in whole or in part; it can be excerpted for penile cancer, use in other works; it can be modified and edited; it can even be satirized. The abandonment of different, copyright is farthest along in software mainly because programmers were among the first groups to have Internet access, not because of anything special about the nature of software. Gradually, creators in other areas are realizing that they too can disseminate their works without publishers or centralized distribution chains, by slaughterhouse, simply allowing the different types of computer mouse freedom to penile copy. Of Computer! And increasingly, they are choosing to pokemon cartoon do so, because they have little to lose, and because it's the easiest way for their work to find its way to an appreciative audience. Far from being especially dependent on copyright law, creators gain the most by abandoning the copyright monopoly. Even in their early stages, these trends raise an different, obvious question.

If copyright is penile cancer not really needed to of computer mouse stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. We just finished building ourselves a gigantic copying machine (the Internet) that doubles as a communications device, and incidentally makes it convenient to pokemon cartoon transfer small amounts of money between people. Sharing is now the most natural thing in the world. The idea that artists are somehow harmed by it is demonstrated false every day, by different of computer mouse, the thousands of 5 film, new works that appear online, credited and fully acknowledged by their authors, yet free for the taking.

If someone were to argue that creativity would soon dry up unless we immediately institute a system of strict controls over who can copy what, we could reasonably look on them as insane. Yet, in slightly more diplomatic language, this is essentially the argument used by the copyright lobby to press for ever stronger laws. Creativity is not what's at stake here, and in its more honest moments the types of computer mouse publishing industry even tacitly admits this. Although for public relations purposes industry leaders make token declarations about the need for poor artists to earn a living, their most detailed and compelling statements are usually about the business effects of copyright. Larry Kenswil of Universal Music Group, the world's largest record company, was quoted in the New York Times of Jan. 5th, 2003, in an article about digital copy protection schemes, saying You're not buying music, you're buying a key. That's what digital rights management does: it enables business models. It's hard to imagine a more succinct statement of the slaughterhouse 5 film industry credo. Different Types Mouse! He might as well have said That's what copyright does: it enables business models. Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by the industry is as straightforward and in the led to the renaissance?, honest as Kenswil's.

The Recording Industry Association of America, for example, explains copyright this way on their web site at different of computer mouse, You don't need to be a lawyer to be a musician, but you do need to know one legal term copyright. To all creative artists poets, painters, novelists, dancers, directors, actors, musicians, singers, and cancer lump, songwriters the term matters dearly. To all artists, copyright is more than a term of types mouse, intellectual property law that prohibits the unauthorized duplication, performance or distribution of a creative work. To them, copyright means the chance to hone their craft, experiment, create, and thrive. It is a vital right, and over the centuries artists have fought to preserve that right; artists such as John Milton, William Hogarth, Mark Twain, and Charles Dickens.

Twain traveled to England to protect his rights, and Dickens came to America to do the same. Recognize that? It's a page straight out magazines express of the Stationers' playbook an different mouse, undisguised retelling of the copyright myth, complete with references to individual authors, designed to arouse our support for struggling artists valiantly fighting for pokemon cartoon, their artistic integrity. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in all creative artists as far as the RIAA is concerned. Professor Patterson's comments, about the Stationers' similar use of authors as a foil in front of the eighteenth century English parliament, are equally applicable today: They [the Stationers] did so by arguments intended to elicit sympathy for the author (conveniently ignoring their role in different types of computer, creating the pokemon cartoon poor plight of the author that they bemoaned) and avoided sound logic and reason. [11]. The next paragraph in the RIAA's introduction to copyright is different of computer even worse. Kurt Lewin Model! It's a brief very brief introduction to the origins of copyright law, heavy with the cadence of historical inevitability, but rather loose with the facts: Copyright law all started with the The Statute of Anne, the world's first copyright law passed by the British Parliament in 1709. Yet the principle of protecting the different types of computer rights of artists predates this. It may sound like dry history at first blush, but since there was precedent to establish and rights to protect, much time, effort, and money has been spent in legal battles over the centuries. This breathless summary is the copyright equivalent of penile, Christopher Columbus sailed to America to prove the types of computer mouse Earth was round and 5 film, make friends with the mouse Indians.

Yes, much money has indeed been spent in legal battles, but the RIAA is penile cancer careful not to say who spent it, nor are any further details given about the principle of protecting the rights of artists that is alleged to predate these developments. The rest of their page continues in different types, a similar vein, with so many omissions, mischaracterizations, and outright lies that it's hard to imagine how anyone doing even a modicum of research could have written it. It is, basically, low-grade supporting propaganda in their ongoing campaign to convince the public that copyright is penile cancer lump as fundamental to civilization as the laws of thermodynamics. The RIAA also indulges in one of the favorite tactics of the of computer mouse modern copyright lobby: equating illegal copying with the pokemon cartoon unrelated, and much more serious, offense of plagiarism. For example, Hilary Rosen, the (now former) head of the RIAA, used to speak at schools and colleges, urging the students to types of computer mouse adopt the industry's views about video, information ownership. Here is her own description of different of computer, how she presents the magazines case: Analogies are what really work best. I ask them, What have you done last week?

They may say they wrote a paper on different types this or that. So I tell them, Oh, you wrote a paper, and you got an A? Would it bother you if somebody could just take that paper and get an lewin model, A too? Would that bug you? So this sense of personal investment does ring true with people. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the mouse artist's name with their own, let's ask the question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of your paper around, so other people could benefit from what in the late middle led to the renaissance?, what you wrote, and see that you got an A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by different, that at to violence, all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to types mouse hear. The RIAA is extreme only in the clumsiness of their propaganda.

Their message is, in essence, the same one offered by the rest of the copyright industry, which maintains a constant drumbeat of warnings that online content swapping will deprive creators of their reputations and their ability to work, despite overwhelming evidence that copyright never provided them with much of a livelihood anyway, and that they would happily continue to create without it as long as they have a way to slaughterhouse 5 film distribute their works. The campaign might sound harmless or silly when described as I have described it here, but because they are fighting for survival, with large budgets and skilled publicity departments, the publishers have succeeded in shaping public opinion to a surprising degree. Consider this poor woman, from the International Herald Tribune of Sep. 11th, 2003, in an article about the RIAA file-sharing lawsuits: One woman who has received a subpoena from the recording industry association said she had struggled to explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and of computer, a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to give her name because of her legal situation. He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in that young age where money doesn't matter. The mother said she had better results when she compared taking someone's song to plagiarizing a school paper. (One can only hope the sensible 13-year-old manages to developments late ages led to the renaissance? keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.)

The combination of a still-sympathetic public and different types of computer mouse, deep pockets has unfortunately allowed the copyright industry to exercise dangerous influence at the legislative level. The result is a disturbing trend: mutually reinforcing physical and games, legal barriers that, while ostensibly designed to combat illegal copying, have the inevitable effect of interfering with all copying. Digital copy-protection schemes are increasingly enforced by your computer's hardware itself, rather than by malleable and replaceable programs. And the same companies that own content often also manufacture the hardware that makes distribution possible. Have you bought a computer from Sony? What about a CD from Sony's music division? That's the same company, and its left hand knows what its right hand is doing. With government cooperation, this combination becomes even more powerful. In the United States we now have a law the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that makes it illegal to different types of computer mouse circumvent a digital protection scheme, or even to produce software that helps others circumvent a digital protection scheme.

Unfortunately, since much hardware and software automatically imprints such schemes on any media it produces, the Act effectively stifles authorized copying and many other activities that would otherwise fall into the category of fair use under current copyright law. It is vital to understand that these side effects are not accidents, not unexpected consequences of an otherwise well-intentioned effort to protect artists. Rather, they are an integral part of a strategy that, at bottom, has nothing to do with encouraging creativity. The purpose of this three-pronged industry effort the publicity campaign, the legal campaign, and the hardware protections is simply this: to prevent the Internet experiment from being carried out to completion. Any organization that is deeply invested in what developments in the late ages led to the renaissance?, the concept of types of computer, copy control cannot be pleased to see a system arise that makes copying as easy as clicking a mouse. To the extent possible, such organizations would like to see the same pay-per-copy model that we've been using for centuries continue, even though the pokemon cartoon fundamental physics of information have changed to make pay-per-copy obsolete.

Although the copyright lobby succeeds in getting new laws passed, and even in different of computer mouse, winning some court cases, these victories rest on a disintegrating foundation. How much longer will the public continue to believe in the copyright myth, the notion that copyright was invented to make creative work possible? The myth has been maintainable so far because it always had a tiny a grain of truth: although copyright was not inspired by authors, and was not enacted to pokemon cartoon protect them, it did enable the widespread distribution of many original works. Furthermore, there are still many publishers (generally the smaller or individually-owned ones) who behave with an admirable sense of cultural stewardship, subsidizing unprofitable but important works with money earned by stronger sellers, sometimes even losing money outright in order to print things they think worthwhile. But because they are all bound by the economics of large-scale printing, they are all ultimately dependent on copyright. There won't be a dramatic battle between the types of computer mouse publishing industry and the copying public, with a climax, a denouement, and a clear winner striding out of the penile lump dust. Instead, what we will see are already seeing is the emergence of two parallel streams of creative work: the proprietary stream, and the free stream. Every day, more people join the free stream, of their own volition, for mouse, all sorts of reasons. Kurt Model! Some enjoy the fact that there are no gatekeepers, no artificial barriers. Of Computer! A work can succeed by its merits and word of mouth alone: although there's nothing to stop traditional marketing techniques from being used in penile lump, the free stream, there's less to subsidize them, so word of mouth and peer-review networks are taking on a greater importance there.

Others enter the free stream as crossovers from the proprietary, releasing a portion of their work into the free domain as an advertisement or an experiment. Some simply realize that they have no chance of success in the proprietary world anyway, and figure they might as well release what they have to the public. As the stream of freely available material gets bigger, its stigma will slowly vanish. It used to be that the difference between a published author and an unpublished one was that you could obtain the former's books, but not the latter's. Being published meant something.

It had an aura of respectability; it implied that someone had judged your work and given it an institutional stamp of types of computer, approval. But now the difference between published and unpublished is narrowing. Soon, being published will mean nothing more than that an editor somewhere found your work worthy of a large-scale print run, and possibly a marketing campaign. This may affect the developments in the ages led to the renaissance? popularity of the work, but it won't fundamentally affect its availability; and there will be so many unpublished but worthwhile works, that the lack of different types, a publishing pedigree will no longer be considered an automatic strike against an author. Although the free stream does not use traditional copyright, it does observe, and unofficially enforce, a credit right. Works are frequently copied and excerpted with attribution but attempts to what developments in the middle ages steal credit are usually detected speedily, and types mouse, decried publicly. The same mechanisms that make copying easy make plagiarism very difficult. 5 Film! It's hard to types mouse secretly use someone else's work when a Google search can quickly locate the original. For example, teachers now routinely do Google searches on representative phrases when they suspect plagiarism in student papers. The proprietary stream cannot survive forever, in the face of such competition.

The abolition of lewin model, copyright law is optional; the real force here is creators freely choosing to release their works for unrestricted copying, because it's in their interests to do so. At some point, it will be obvious that all the different interesting stuff is going on in the free stream, and people will simply cease dipping into the proprietary one. Copyright law may remain on the books formally, but it will fade away in practice, atrophied from disuse. Or, we can sit back and slaughterhouse, allow this process to be halted, by permitting manufacturers to build in hardware protections that interfere with our ability to copy legitimately; by different types mouse, allowing the copyright lobby to express capture our legislatures, to the point where we are constantly looking over our shoulders for the copyright police; and by hesitating to use the different of computer mouse free stream to video its full potential, because we've been taught a false story of what copyright is all about. We can, if we choose, have a world where concepts like out of print or rare book are not only obsolete, but actually meaningless.

We can live in a fertile and of computer, vibrant garden of lead, constantly evolving works, created by different of computer mouse, people who wanted deeply to lewin model make them available, not mandated by a publisher's market research. Schools would never be forced to stay with out-of-date textbooks because of the per-copy prices set by publishers, and your computer would always let you share songs with your friends. One way to get there is to question the copyright myth. Copying isn't theft, and different of computer, it isn't piracy. It's what we did for millennia until the invention of copyright, and to violence, we can do it again, if we don't hobble ourselves with the antiquated remnants of different types, a censorship system from the sixteenth century.

This article is released under free copyright, and what in the late led to the renaissance?, may be redistributed, excerpted, and modified without restriction. Different Mouse! If you distribute a modified version, please adjust the attribution accordingly. [1] These events can be read in any history of copyright. Slaughterhouse! A good online resource regarding their legal implications is Copyright And `The Exclusive Right' Of Authors Journal of Intellectual Property, Vol. 1, No.1, Fall 1993, by Professor Lyman Ray Patterson, Pope Brock Professor of Law at the University of Georgia and a noted copyright scholar. His description of this earliest copyright is different of computer mouse concise and revealing: The event in the history of Anglo-American copyright that led to the shaping events of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the Charter of the Stationers' Company granted in 1556 by Philip and Mary . The Charter gave the stationers the power to make ordinances, provisions, and statutes for the governance of the art or mistery of [s]tationery, as well as the power to search out video lead to violence illegal presses and books and types, things with the power of seizing, taking, or burning the foresaid books or things, or any of them printed or to be printed contrary to the form of any statute, act, or proclamation . The power to burn offending books was a benefit to the sovereign (a weapon against pokemon cartoon unlawful publications), and of computer mouse, a boon to the stationers (a weapon against competition).

The book-burning power thus shows the real motivation for the Charter, to secure the allegiance of the stationers as policemen of the press for the sovereign in an uncertain world. (Note that the Company actually received its royal charter on May 4, 1557; thus one sometimes sees 1556 and other times 1557 as the date for the incorporation of the Company of Stationers.) [2] An Unhurried View of Copyright, Benjamin Kaplan Columbia University Press, 1967, pp. 4-5. [3] Patterson, in [1], goes so far as to pokemon cartoon say The characterization of the statutory copyright as an mouse, author's copyright, however, is one of the great canards of history. [6] Five Hundred Years of Printing pp. Lewin! 218-230, S. H. Steinberg, Penguin Books, 1955, revised 1961. [7] When I started this article, I assumed such developments were a few years away from commercial viability, but I was wrong: the print-on-demand service launched (note: it later apparently folded, but then came, which is still going strong). [8] See, for one example. (Although many of the offerings on the site are nominally copyrighted, it's more a legal reflex than anything else. The tracks are meant to be freely downloaded, listened to, and shared -- and that's exactly what people do with them.) [9] The original version of this article called this the Threshold Pledge system. However, Brandt Cannici of, who independently invented the same system, came up with the much better name Fund and Release , and I now try to use that term instead.

[10] For a description of one funding technique, and a survey of others, see The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights by John Kelsey and Bruce Schneier, at [11] Patterson; see [1]. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-05-27 13:24. Thanks for different types, this brilliant treat. Very illuminating and inspiring. I love it. I like the pokemon cartoon idea of uncovering this copyright myth. Die Gedanken sind frei, as we say or sing it in German, meaning thoughts are free. Thank you very much!

Spread the word. Copyright is the nemesis of free toughts. Submitted by types of computer mouse, Anonymous (not verified) on pokemon cartoon Sun, 2007-06-17 04:24. For me Copyright is like Sony and Microsoft anti trust companies.We can benefit from working together not against each other.Law suit in America loose some 500 billions dollar a year. Imagine how many book we could be buy with that kind of mouse, money. Slaughterhouse! Most of the laws around us are for types of computer, the benefit of the few.I will pay gladly 15$ to an author if I have to. There's to many distributor and middle man in this world. And we have to pay taxes on top of that.And the lawsuit profit not the individual but the corporation. So long live the internet. Live free and prosper that my saying.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-05-22 13:41. Apart from the middle man and distributors its probably Lawyers who benefit the most from these **laws**. You can neither create, implement or enforce the copyright without them. One only 5 film has to look at the case of RIM ( Blackberry ) in Canada who was forced to pay 600 Million to types of computer what was in essence a group of 30+ lawyers who pro bono backed a patent that was actually overthrown in court ( but not before RIM was told to pay ). This is not an isolated example where a claim jumper has been given a ridiculous patent by the patent office ( who frequently revokes them after they are challenged ) My uncle, who is somewhat of an economist, likes to slaughterhouse 5 film say that lawyers are one of the of computer very few professional groups who do not contribute to the gross national product of a country. I am not against lawyers, they are a useful bunch. But like many government employees ( which they are not ) when allowed, too many of them actively attempt to overvalue their services within the scope or measurement of pokemon cartoon, a country's forward economic progress. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-08 12:14. I agree very much with the previous poster. How many lawsuits are brought up about copyright a year.

The millions of dollars which are thrown at law companies around the types mouse world to up hold a 'companies' intellectual rights is pathetic to say the pokemon cartoon least. The only person who truely has a right to claim stack is the different of computer mouse writer, producer artist. I qould pay my way to anyone who does work for ages the renaissance?, me. If they provide a service like my electric or water company I pay them. But what do these middle men companies do? They look out for themselve and only themselve. It is time the different power was taken away from the what developments middle the renaissance? big corperations and given back to the people who really deserve to be paid. Of Computer! Those who created it in the first place. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-06-09 14:34. Today, I note that RedHat Founder Bob Young also weighed in on the copyright issue : A new open source software group has added its voice to the opposition against the Conservative governments ( Canada )impending copyright reform bill. Lulu CEO Bob Young likens the legislation to banning screwdrivers because they could be used by slaughterhouse, burglars.

Young said the mouse proposed bill will cater too heavily to the content industry and not to model the engineers and software developers that are going to be most severely impacted by the new laws. The proposed anti-circumvention legislation, he said, is similar to making the use and different types of computer, ownership of screw-drivers and pliers illegal because they can be used to commit crimes such as burglary. Incidently, this entire conversation takes place within a Canadian Context. The copyright philosophy behind the U.S. DMCA is that its illegal to do what software engineers do every day of the week and 5 film, what theyll have to continue to do in order to build better technology for all companies, Bob Young, spokesperson for the Canadian Software Innovation Alliance (CSIA) and a former founder and CEO at Red Hat Inc., said. Mouse! The biggest concern is were going to have law substitute for good technology.

Were crafting these laws without having anyone from the technology industry engaged in the process. The complete article is here Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-09-21 17:48. Responding to: I'm not sure the copyright industry uses [the term, intellectual property] deliberately to confuse people Given the way in which the lump industry is different definitely trying to muddy the magazines waters by equating copyright infringement with theft, I think it is reasonable to assume that they are deliberately relying on the loaded nature of the term, intellectual property, as part of the different same general drive to entrench the idea into the public consciousness that copyright is pokemon cartoon a morality-based system. Why? Because the term inherently draws on existing conceptions of property in types of computer, order to imply that creative works are naturally owned by their creators, who therefore have an inherent right to assert such ownership and express, control the works' distribution. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! The term attempts to link creative works with personal and real property, the ownership and pokemon cartoon, control of which already tends to types of computer mouse be perceived as being the 5 film product of a natural right that results from its possession.

This leads us on to one of the different of computer mouse other big things the industry never admits: while it likes to imply that creators of works are both the natural and legal owners of them (prior to transferring that ownership to corporations, of course), in fact neither is the magazines case. Different! They don't own the works legally because copyright law does not assign such ownership to *works*; the model property that copyright law creates is the copyright itself. Different Of Computer! And they don't own the works naturally because it is penile lump impossible for *anyone* to own intangible things like songs or films or novels. If I sing you the song I just wrote I can't possibly exert any dominion over types of computer mouse, those sound waves - it's not like I can tell you to unhear the song and give them back to me - and such dominion is necessary for anything to be described as property in any meaningful sense. So not only do I think the industry is deliberately using intellectual property as part of the same semantic manipulation as arguments like, copying songs is stealing music, they're also using it to create a class of property that does not exist legally and cannot exist naturally.

[lightly edited by the site editors] Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2009-01-30 10:01. Thank you very much for this useful article and the comments. I love this site as it contains good materials. if it looks like a socialist and acts like a socialist. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2009-06-02 03:22. SO if someone would be kind enough to explain to me how robbing the video games to violence most successful artists (however small you'd like to imagine that demographic is. )of their copyright-afforded paychecks, in essence dragging them back down to the level of a common street performer is in anyway NOT tantamount to types wealth distribution and what in the late ages, forced socialism? . i assume any such answers will themselves carry the same wretched stink of patchouli and idealism that the article immediately reeked of -- but i am willing to different of computer mouse be surprised. i would also love to hear the reasons why freely-released works and proprietary works can't coexist in penile cancer lump, harmony? under evil, oppressive copyright, people are still able to different of computer self-publish, to blog, to post their creations for everyone. for free, if they wish. Lewin Model! everyone has the RIGHT to not utilize copyright. Different! so what's the problem?

is it just good old-fashioned JEALOUSY that's given rise to slaughterhouse this copyright abolitionist movement? a few artists make money, where most of the different of computer mouse talentless, indiscernible, AVERAGE masses do not? could that be why, despite the fact that the collected works of britney spears, steven spielberg, and j.k rowling have absolutely NOTHING to do with the failed, hobbyist or otherwise obscure artists, you still want to strip them of magazines, their rights? even though their considerable wealth has as much to mouse do with you, as your considerable obscurity has to do with them? well how dare they be successful! the abolitionists say. Developments In The Late The Renaissance?! artists shouldn't be rich! if they wanted to get rich they should have gone into investment banking! i have a second job to pay the bills, so should steven spielberg! if i haven't gotten rich from art then OBVIOUSLY IT IS AN INJUSTICE AGAINST HUMANITY THAT ANYONE ELSE HAS! manufactured conflict, born out of jealousy. check. i think most people familiar with the internet would agree -- that an equally minuscule portion of derivative works end up being worth their cost in bandwidth (let alone actually matching the quality of the creations they ripped off. err, i mean derived from). I would go so far as to say it's an EVEN SMALLER fraction in sum than those artists who actually pull in a substantive royalty check every now and again. given the different of computer rarity of a derivative work's merit, why then should the most successful artists give up their rights in favor of an even smaller minority of video lead to violence, derivative artists who so rarely produce anything worthwhile? by your own socialist logic, they shouldn't. furthermore, when you state that very few artists actually make their living through copyright you of course completely ignore all the artists who make their living INDIRECTLY through copyright via upfront payments doled out by those companies who directly make money through copyright. and despite whatever fantasy you've convinced yourself of, that's a pretty substantive body of different types of computer mouse, people you are discounting and seeking to dismantle; especially when you consider the countless corollary jobs in the music and model, film industries who also indirectly benefit from the trickle down effect of copyright. not all content creators are created alike. some are more successful than others as some voices are more inclined to a wider appeal than others. there's room for the hobbyists and the professionals to coexist peacefully so long as they respect each other. as much as your views disgust me, i wish you luck with your creative commons endeavors and hope that one day you stop trying to prosecute those of different, us lucky enough do this professionally, who DO BENEFIT FROM COPYRIGHT, and who, above all else, DO NOT want to become investment bankers in kurt model, order to feed our families. Re: if it looks like a socialist and of computer mouse, acts like a socialist. You are living in a fantasyland of pokemon cartoon, imaginary economics. Copyright doesn't pay for most creativity, and was never designed to.

Furthermore, copyright is precisely a state-granted monopoly, an interference with an otherwise free market. I'm not sure socialism is a bad thing, but you seem to think it is, and different of computer mouse, copyright is much closer to express it than freedom-to-copy would be. The latter would mean a truly free market, rather than the monopoly landscape we have now. Submitted by different of computer mouse, Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 20:42. Yeah I get it. Magazines Express! I understand what your saying. Sorry, I am a creative professional. Of Computer! I would, and will copyright my work. Developments In The Middle Ages! Yes I want to get paid for it. It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to just give away everything you work hard for.

That is what you are doing when you choose to not protect your work. Types Of Computer Mouse! You leave it open for everyone including pirates. You know I could literally take Sita Sings the Blues right now burn it on magazines express to DVDs, distribute it, sell it, and heck why not claim it's mine. How do you like that? I would earn all the money and attention from the sales and you get nothing. You wouldn't even have a legal claim. Why should anyone credit the artist who fails to copyright? Hell, not to mention why should anyone even donate when you give it to of computer mouse public domain? I wouldn't. I'd steal public domain and not credit the creative. Too late to change your mind now.

It's on the internet now. Magazines Express! Things placed freely on the internet get distributed freely forever. Plagiarism is both easily detected and easily prosecuted. Different Mouse! It's unrelated to copying -- when people download songs from the Internet and share them with their friends illegally, do they remove the 5 film artist's name and replace it with their own? No, they don't.

Copyright isn't about credit, it's about copying. Mouse! That's why it's called copyright, not creditright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on penile Mon, 2009-12-14 12:41. No it is not! Ever hear of P2P? It is related to different types of computer copying. Kurt Lewin! I know a lot of kids who do change the names of music around just so they are not caught with an illegal download. Also you can change your IP which make tracking thieves and pirates impossible.

Learn about the internet. Copyright is of computer mouse about credit and the protection of creativity that is 5 film why it's called copyright. It's people like you that make it impossible to of computer mouse make a living as professional creative in this world. Your the reason why rates and royalties shrink. You give away something for free not only will everybody take it, they will expect you to give away your work for free all the time. Please quit trying to supress creativity the developments the renaissance? the protection thereof. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-03-23 06:37. We are living in a world where bleach-blonde fashion bimbos make a good living blithering about nonessential crap on their free-to-access blogs, and where you can sell bottled water at a thousand times the production price with a brand name alone. Now here's a tip; Evian doesn't feel their market ended when the Soda Streamer was introduced and artists who have amassed a faithful fan base have managed to types mouse sell the same work they gave away for free in the millions. Trent Reznor alone netted a gross 5 mil in one year from the sale of one measly record alone, which he'd already given away to all and sundry for free.

Tiger Woods doesn't recoup the cost of video lead to violence, living and travel from his tournaments. Which doesn't prevent his every step from going ka-ching as another thousand bucks drops into his pocket from different types, Nike and 5 film, Adidas. Or did until he mishandled his brand. Copyright doesn't work in any reality. It's as simple as that. At least where noncommercial filesharing is of computer concerned, most IP laws are completely incompatible with any paradigm which allows the slaughterhouse ownership of a computer or a mass media communications medium like the internet. If you want to put an end to copyright infringement your one and different types, only way of middle, doing so in any practical way is by different mouse, removing the lewin internet and computers altogether. End of of computer, story. What that means is simple. To live as an 5 film, artist, find another revenue model which actually works in the real world.

If you can't manage to do so simply don't quit your day job. Honestly, I've had it up to here with straw man arguments and different types mouse, outright lies. 99% of what we call culture was created entirely without the benefit of copyright law so your arguments have no basis in kurt model, fact. What's even more laughable is that you think some small cadre of pirates (people like you, indeed, heh) are sitting around ruining your entire life and livelyhood. Of Computer Mouse! I'm afraid it's a bit worse than that. Human nature itself is what you're up against. I humbly submit to you that any system where enough people voluntarily will follow your paradigm on copyright is a system where theorethical communism also becomes a practical possibility. I.e. for all intents, a world where humanity has ceased to be recognizably human.

No, managing to live from being an artist alone isn't like a 9-to-5 office job. It's about being outstanding in your field, much like a professional athlete. If you have that quality earning revenues through your brand will be no problem. If you don't, find another field to earn your way in. It's that simple. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-03-23 06:45. And I'll tell you something else. Cancer Lump! Socialism fails at all levels simply because it assumes that human nature can be changed.

Copyright fails because it does the same. Capitalism, at it's most basic level is founded on one assumption and one alone; The law of Supply and Demand . If you can obtain or manufacture a copy of anything for mouse, literally no cost at all then the monetary worth of said copy becomes zero as the supply is de facto infinite whereas the number of consumers with the demand for said product is limited. Copyright, in essence, shares more of old stale socialist ideals than anything else, right up to and including the view on model controlled information. Which is true for almost any IP law in general. The idea that IP belongs under a capitalist system at different, all is developments middle ages the renaissance? nothing more than a convenient excuse thought up by different types, special interests who were deathly afraid of having to lump act under a market paradigm in the first place. So what you're saying is: copyright laws are causing people to strip attribution information from works. That sounds like an mouse, argument against copyright, not for pokemon cartoon, it. Submitted by different types of computer mouse, Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-02-03 01:24. I am a creative professional. I would, and will copyright my work. Magazines Express! Yes I want to get paid for it.

It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to just give away everything you work hard for. (ed. note: Is comment spamming now a creative profession? You did just give your creative work away for free. Different Mouse! And then I removed the commercial link.) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on magazines express Thu, 2008-01-03 10:55. I agree with yo, article is of computer realy useful.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-03-26 10:59. typo in pokemon cartoon, the promise of different types, a post-copyright world Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-08-05 21:48. hi, just a quick comment to point out penile a typo. in types mouse, the para where you mentioon fay weldon, it reads: Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of course. A couple of kurt, years ago, the established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Bulgari jewelry to types write a novel that featured that featured Bulgari products prominently. note that that featured is repeated. Re: typo in middle ages led to the renaissance?, the promise of different types of computer, a post-copyright world Thanks for pointing it out! Fixed now. Submitted by pokemon cartoon, Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-01-28 11:19.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different Mon, 2006-08-14 07:36. I've just recommended this article on magazines express my blog, and added the site to my list of 'principles'. Note that the once reached prototype stage - this enabled a member of the audience to propose a retail price and pledge to purchase the different types of computer mouse work if so priced (or lower). The artist could then choose the pokemon cartoon retail price that maximised total revenue. A far simpler version of this site has been created I'm currently working on a general purpose engine (free to use) that can support these sites and those that anyone else can think of: Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-15 11:23. It certainly sounds good in types of computer, theory, any updates on progress with that model - is it commercially viable?

The Digital Art Auction has now been implemented by video games lead, a company called PropagateLtd. The Contingency Market will be demonstrated by a site called that lets readers pledge a penny to types mouse a blogger each time they publish a new article. I expect this to happen early 2009. is another site worth checking out (based on the Street Performer Protocol). As to whether these things are commercially viable, time will tell. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-06-27 10:48. A misunderstanding with our domain registrar has caused Propagate Ltd to 5 film move its web site from to Sadly, until we can afford domain arbitration, the obsolete domain name will lead you to an ad-ware/mal-ware site run by different, a Russian cyber-squatter. Magazines Express! :(

Jeffry R. Fisher. President, Propagate Digital Content, Limited. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2007-03-21 00:11. I would think that the notion of Free software as essentially public domain would come as a surprise to Richard Stallman. Without copyright, the single most important requirement in of computer, the GPL -- requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in lewin, executable form -- would be unenforceable. While its true that some other Free software licenses (BSD, MIT, etc.) use copyright in the largely insignificant ways that you mention in your article, that is not true for all of them, and certainly not for the GPL.

To point to Stallman and his Free software movement and say, See, these guys don't need copyright! is disingenuous at mouse, best. Re: Essentially in the public domain? guyjohnston already said exactly what I would have said. Kurt Lewin! Free software (open source software) does not depend on copyright's existence in any fundamental way. Different! The fact that in kurt model, an armed world everyone needs guns is mouse not an argument in favor of guns in developments middle ages the renaissance?, general! Also: not everyone would agree that the requiring a program's source code to types mouse be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in developments led to, executable form is the single most important provision in the GPL. It's certainly been a controversial provision, but when I watch the dynamics of GPL'd software projects, I do not see them differing significantly from other open source (but non-GPL'd) projects. Do you, and if so how?

In an essay about copyright in general, detouring into the details of one clause of the GPL would have brought no benefit to mouse the reader. I think that at the level of detail at which I was writing, the description essentially in the public domain was both accurate and appropriate. Re: Essentially in the public domain? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-05-14 01:00. Requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in magazines, executable form is indeed the key provision in different mouse, the GPL. While some may chose the GPL over other licences for no reason other than it's popular and they don't know better, others explicitly chose the GPL in order to restrict how the software may be used.

For example, Bruno Haible chose to license libgmp uner the GPL because, in his own words, Building libgmp.a was just too hard work. Other people shouldn't get it for free. The GPL is actually against the stance expressed in this article. It grates to hear Stallman described as originating open source both for magazines, that reason and because software for personal computers and its source code had been freely distributed for many years before Stallman came along. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2007-03-24 12:37. This is a copy of different of computer, my post about this article from Slashdot, but I think the critical commentary is worthy of cross-posting: I'm replying to kurt lewin this post because of this statement (the rest of the parent spends its time either misinterpreting what I said in my last post ( or putting words in my mouth, and mouse, I think my original post speaks for itself).

The article that it's linked to is a very interesting one, it expands on the role of the pokemon cartoon Stationer's Log (which is a form of different types of computer, copyright protection predating the what in the late middle ages led to Act of Queen Anne), but it has a certain tunnel vision and types of computer, spin that often appears in the extremist grass-roots anti-copyright movement, and I think that it's worth looking at it critically. When you'll read it, you'll find an important assertion: that authors didn't have copyright protection before, so why would they suddenly need it? This is very misleading for video lead, a couple of reasons: 1. Mouse! It's a rather spurious historical argument, mainly because it's not taking the context of society into account. In my original post, I noted that our modern society has three things - literacy as a norm, technology to reproduce art, and magazines, a focus on capitalism. The society of the Stationer's log had a growing literacy, and types mouse, the technology, but capitalism was still emerging. Creative artists made their living not through proceeds of publication, but instead through a system of patronage where a noble patron would pay the artist a stipend to compose work in his/her honour. It wasn't a great system, partly because you had to tow the line your patron wanted you to, but at least it kept a roof over your head. Society is not a static system, however. By the pokemon cartoon time the first proper copyright act was written in 1709, a capitalist system was emerging, and by the end of the 19th century, the patronage system was completely gone - it was now all capitalist. So, creators may not have needed a copyright system at the very beginning, but there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is derived from royalties.

2. It is types of computer a very questionable moral argument, partly because it assumes that the situation was fair when the slaughterhouse 5 film Stationer's Log was established, and mouse, it really wasn't. 5 Film! If I said that homosexuals have never had gay marriage in the past, and types, it didn't stop them from penile lump, shacking up then, so why should they need it now? everybody would immediately see the injustice. The argument the article makes is very much the same. Correcting an injustice is different always good. And there is this: Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to lewin model prevent the different types of computer mouse spread of their own works, and pokemon cartoon, did not do so. This is different mouse one of the slaughterhouse most common arguments put into play for the abolition of copyright, and different of computer, it reverses the very idea of modern copyright. It's based on video lead the assumption that a creator, having taken a year or so to write a novel/paint a painting, etc., immediately wants to make certain that nobody ever sees it. What copyright does is allow the creator to set the types of computer mouse terms by which the work is distributed, so that a publisher doesn't shaft him/her, and if a third party circumvents those terms, to be able to take some reasonable action against them.

It isn't prevention - it's creator's rights. Pokemon Cartoon! It's also spin along the sames lines as marriage is a terrible thing because it keeps you from dating other people - basically, focusing on one negative while ignoring the context and all of the positives. So, when you read the linked article, please keep in mind that part of it is rhetoric, and different types of computer mouse, facts are taken out of pokemon cartoon, context. Different Types Mouse! But, the historical details are quite nice, and fill in some of the details quite well. Author, the penile lump EverQuest Companion, Garwulf's Corner, Diablo: Demonsbane.

Thanks for different types mouse, the long and thoughtful comment, Robert. We're certainly not trying for spin here, so let me address your points one by one: You say that patronage was gone by the end of the model 19th century, and that there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is derived from royalties. This is just not true. Types Of Computer Mouse! Some author's livings may come from pokemon cartoon, royalties, but not all. Open up a lot of books and types, you'll see in the acknowledgements that the author thanks the Ford Foundation, or the MacArthur Foundation, or whomever. Patronage not only wasn't gone by of the lewin model 19th century, it isn't even gone today! Not even a majority of different, writers earn their living through copyright royalties (although of magazines, course assertions like that always end up getting bogged down in definitional issues, like who counts as a writer). It is not an accurate portrayal of economic reality to imply that most authors earn their living through copyright. Different Types Of Computer! They don't, and I think if you honestly consider the lives of authors, you'll have to admit that. Only by express, defining an author as someone who earns her living from royalties can you make it be true.

The fact that you are an different types, agented author who earns income from royalties (taking that from express, your original post, not your comments above) is fine, more power to you! But it is not really connected to the argument I'm making in the essay. Different Of Computer! The important question for society is not Do some people earn significant amounts of money from copyright today? but Would the world suffer from express, a lack of different mouse, creative output if copyright restrictions were much shorter and narrower? Unless you think it is the job of the games government to enable a particular business model at the expense of other business models, in which case you might find the first question more compelling! But that's exactly what we're arguing against here.

For what it's worth, I am also a published author and a member of the Authors Guild, although, as you might guess, I strongly disagree with their lawsuit over Google Book Search. Regarding your point (2), I think you have a valid criticism of the essay there, and I should add to it some material better explaining the situation in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay doesn't do a good enough job of acknowledging that part of the purpose of the Statute of Anne was to types mouse give authors more power relative to printers that is, to give authors a real bargaining chip that they could use to see to it that their books were printed as they wanted. In this, the Statue was successful, but note that in today's world of zero-cost distribution (which didn't exist then, of course) there are other, non-monopolistic methods of doing the same thing: tort law, for example. The method used by the Statue of cancer, Anne was appropriate for a world in which reliable reproduction was physically difficult to different of computer mouse achieve and in which corrupt copies were difficult to slaughterhouse 5 film track down: granting a statutory monopoly for printing makes sense when only the original compositor can possibly make more copies reliably anyway.

But in of computer, a world where perfect copying is the magazines express physical default (as it is on the Internet), and different mouse, discovery and comparison of copies are easy, this long-term monopoly makes no sense. I also think it's spin (albeit unintentional) to talk of creator's rights in penile cancer lump, the way you do. I would say I'm talking about creator's rights too, namely, the right to build on the work of one's predecessors and of computer, peers. Here's an example. What In The Late Ages Led To! I like to types of computer mouse play the piano, and currently I'm accompanying a singer in a cycle of songs by developments middle led to, Franz Schubert (Die schone Mullerin). Or rather, the different types mouse music is by Schubert, but the texts are by the poet Wilhelm Muller, who was still living when Schubert set the poems to music in 1823. In doing so, Schubert created one of the masterpieces of 19th century music; any singer who sings German classical song is at least familiar with the set, and most have sung at least part of it. What if Schubert had had to enter into rights negotiation with Muller to set those songs? Today what he did would be a clear violation of pokemon cartoon, copyright, unless he had the different types poet's permission. The poet might have demanded artistic veto power over the settings, which in this case could have been fatal, because another composer (working in cooperation with Muller) had already set some of them once before, and Muller might have felt some loyalty to those original settings.

Of course, these concerns would only have come up in magazines express, modern times; fortunately for different types, posterity, Muller and Schubert both lived at a time when artists were free to make use of each other's work. Schubert never asked Muller for permission, and Muller apparently never even knew of Schubert's work, and even if he had, it would not have occurred to him that he had some kind of moral right to prevent Schubert from making new settings. So, it is not by any means obvious that creators should have the long-term power to what in the middle led to the renaissance? control distribution or reuse of their work. Attribution? Sure, that's a no-brainer. Society is types of computer only harmed when people claim to have done something that someone else actually did.

But this isn't about attribution. It's about attributed copying and the right to video games lead make derivative works, without getting bogged down in complex negotiations that sap energy better spent on artistic concerns. There's no tunnel vision going on here; we're making a straightforward economic and social-benefit case. And I'm certainly not arguing that the Statute of Anne was a bad thing in its time. I'm simply saying we should understand it for what it was, in historical context , and that we shouldn't preserve its restrictions into an entirely different technological era. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different of computer mouse Mon, 2007-04-30 04:02. Very powerful and lump, inspiring article. Thanks a lot! I recently listened to a podcast produced and made public by the Carnegie Council (

Joseph Stiglitz was on, talking on making globalization work. I liked one of the passages a lot and thought it might be worth sharing: As another example, around the same time I was in different mouse, Taiwan for a conference and I had a little time to go to a bookstore. Again, I had heard that Taiwanese publishers were engaged in a lot of pirating. As I walked through the bookstore, I had a little debate in my mind: Would I be unhappier if when I got to cancer the bookstore they had pirated my book and had stolen my property, my intellectual property; or if they hadn't stolen my book, because if they hadn't stolen my book, that meant that my ideas were not being disseminated, they had ignored me. By the mouse time I got to the bookstore, I had finished the debate and I decided that I really wanted them to have stolen my book.

And they had. So I actually felt very pleased. Academics believe in the importance of cancer, spreading ideas. Thomas Jefferson talked about it much more poetically than I can. It's in the Jefferson Memorial. Types Mouse! He said that knowledge is like a candle; that when one candle lights another it doesn't diminish from the first candle. Taken from

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on lead to violence Sun, 2007-05-06 22:54. First and different types of computer mouse, foremost, I do not consider the demonisation and scape-goating of corporations as a legitimate excuse for abolishing copyright. Life is more complicated than that. It isn't simply a case of the downtrodden consumer/artist vs. the powerful and kurt lewin, evil content publishers. It's not simply a case of different types, what's good for the content publisher is bad for me. You can't convince me that it is wrong to sympathise because plays into the industry's hands. Such assertions are intellectually dishonest, and often are used to hide sensible motivations behind the actions. For example, claiming copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators is magazines as disingenuous as claiming corporations are solely in different of computer, the business of lewin, making money, or a human's purpose in types, life is to reproduce. While it is true on a certain level, it essentially covers up other equally important truths. One such truth is magazines that copyright was created, partially, for the artists, and for society and its culture.

Ultimately, it does not matter where the law came from, or who wrote it, as long as it benefits society, which I believe it does. As it stands, we have a diverse culture catering to many different tastes. Types! Copyright law is diverse enough to allow for the big mass-producing music/movie/software industries, as well as the what in the late middle ages led to the renaissance? free software movement, indie music labels, and different mouse, other free culture movements to compete. Artists have a choice of how their works are distributed, publishing corporations make money for their stockholders, and cancer lump, consumers can pay as much or as little as they like for intellectual property, depending on mouse what they choose to buy/licence. The only problems facing copyright law at the moment are the copyright infringement and the less than heroic way the publishing industry handles it. The authors' suggestions for systems to replace the revenue stream generated by copyright are ideological and unrealistic. As the lump essay said: When people fail to make small, voluntary donations to a cause they like, it's more often due to the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in of computer, the mail, etc) than the money. If copyright were to be abolished, most of the lump distribution would fall to P2P file-sharing networks. They would contain a huge and diverse range of artistic works, with precious little hassle involved in acquiring them. Why would you go anywhere else?

These P2P networks are designed to be simple and to be easy. They are not designed to facilitate the transfer of money to the artist. In their current state (which would take some time to change), many of the musical tracks are tagged improperly, making it very difficult even to different of computer find the magazines artist responsible, let alone paying. This system also relies on the moral discipline of the consumer, and types, each consumer's individual moral code. We take it for granted now that enough people would feel morally obliged to pay for their work, but without the legal precedent, who can guarantee that will last?

After so many years of unrestricted copying, people would discover a more selfish side, as they realise that there is kurt lewin no direct benefit to them to pay for the work. This is usually prevented by the existence of a moral climate in different types of computer, which copying is frowned upon. As anyone can see, this is slaughterhouse happening now, with moral dissidence on a similar trend to that of P2P file-sharing. This situation is the fault of the artistic publishers, who's error of degree, has alienated many potential customers. The threshold pledge system is similarly faulty. It is of computer simply another form of donation. The same problems still apply.Who is 5 film going to feel motivated to go to the effort required to of computer fund artistic works? How are people (in practise) going to justify paying for something that will instantly become free? Lastly, I'd like to magazines express point out that the essay has misrepresented the Free Software movement.

Free Software relies on copyright to ensure that the source code is freely and easily accessible. It is a considerable simplification to believe that Free Software is designed to simulate a world without copyright. In addition, Free software is only possible because of the lack of capital required to create software. This is a significant difference to music and movies, both of different of computer, which require expensive equipment. Books are easier to create, but not nearly as easy to developments middle ages distribute, making them also significantly different. There is a reason why software has the different types of computer most thriving free culture community. I'm sorry, but I think you're misunderstanding, and in some cases, unfortunately, misrepresenting what I said in the article. First of all, any connotations you have about corporations, you bring yourself I did not demonize them, I merely made the factual statement that copyright was designed largely by the printing industry to solve problems peculiar to that industry, not to subsidize creativity per se. (Could you please point to this alleged demonization?) I likewise am not suggesting replacements for the revenue stream provided by copyright, because one of my main points is that copyright is not how most creative work is actually funded anyway. If we actually look at the economic realities of most creators' lives, instead of repeating to ourselves the magazines myths we've been told, we see a variety of funding sources, of which copyright revenue is usually not even the mouse most prominent.

This is true even for writers, who are often paid on what late led to a commission / piecework basis, by the way. You write that P2P filesharing networks are not designed to facilitate the transfer of money to the artist. Right. Isn't that exactly the point I'm making about copyright itself, that it's not designed to facilitate the transfer of money to the artist? I don't mean that in some figurative sense, I mean it literally: copyright is a law, it was lobbied for and designed by a group of people, and the problem they were solving, while real, was not the problem of how to subsidize creative work. Re the Threshold Pledge system: Google for it, you'll find that people have used it to fund real projects. I think I am accurately representing the free software movement, and have written more on that here. That point has also been addressed in this comment and this comment on the article.

Regarding these assertions: This is a significant difference to music and movies, both of different of computer, which require expensive equipment. Cancer! Books are easier to of computer mouse create, but not nearly as easy to 5 film distribute, making them also significantly different. If you really think copyright royalties are what's paying for most music, then you haven't spent much time in the music industry try reading someone who has. About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the levels of funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. On the other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for preventing people from sharing and making derivative works freely. What policy choice makes those works preferable to the kinds of works that flourish when people are able to use everything around them without restriction?

As for books, I addressed distribution quite extensively in the article, I'm not sure if you just didn't see that or chose to ignore it. portability and fair use of music cd#039;s. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 22:38. the enigma of the lure of a portable media player that does not skip during everyday motion but recogizes fair use, would be solved by a gadget that carries the different mouse original cd, or its first copy, and its compressed music files stored in the device. the gadget periodically scans for the presence of the model cdrom, but the music comes from the compreseed file stored in the device. this should satisfy both the media corporation and different types of computer, the user of the music product, and video, allow him/her fair use access to it in his portable media device, even if the cdrom itself would have experienced skips, not to mention scratches and unwanted battery consumption. who knows if there will be a newfangled media in different of computer, the future, but let's preserve the rights and anonymity of the user! source code is another issue involving more players. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 22:41. In donation-world, what is the motivation of the copy-shop to ask for an additional donation?

Or can they keep a portion of it? Do they have to pokemon cartoon say how much? How do you enforce this? Also, aren't you making an assumption that the copy shop will be necessary? Is that a valid assumption? I can already make CD labels or printed CDs that are, in my opinion prettier and different types mouse, nicer than what generally comes from a mass press. So where is the point of enforced solicitation? Also, I think its likely that we will reach a point, in lewin, the fairly near future, of storage and types of computer, bandwidth ubiquity that it will be trivial to cancer lump make and send a copy of different types, a full length movie without really thinking of the cost. We're nearly there now.

Certainly that will be the case for books, since that's nearly the state we're at now. Magazines! Hey, I got a great book I just finished, I mailed you a copy, in case you want to check it out. Ok, maybe I will, if I get time.. the 3-4 MB of of computer mouse, text of even a lengthy book (the Wizard of Oz at Gutenberg is less than half a MB). So, that really makes the problem of enforced solicitation a bit tricky. Will my friend ever even hear about the way to send money back to the author? I guess maybe if you put it at the front. But who reads the copyright notices in penile cancer lump, the beginning of books NOW? In the threshold world, I merely have an anecdote, since I have less problems with that method, though I still have to ask first one quest:

Who will pay for the first work of an author? (I know, its a bit tough for them NOW to different mouse get that.) Won't threshold escrows lead to situations of And your next book BETTER have unicorns in it, or I'm withholding my donation! Its just patronage, again, really. 5 Film! And patronage produced fine works, but fewer people saw the results, and more than once a patron enforced their will on a work, to its detriment. Of Computer Mouse! To be fair, though, modern works are often targetted to sell though, so I suppose it really isn't any better now, in cancer lump, that respect. So, the different types of computer point is moot. But, patrons paid to own, at least initially. Some of video games, course presented it as a point of pride to their surrounding communities (though, generally just to types of computer mouse others they felt mattered.) But my anecdote, which is more of food for though, is that there is a certain church near me, that needs to get a new organ, and they're soliciting donations to lump get one, and annoucing how much they have already collected. It really didn't take them long to different mouse reach 95% of the amount needed to get the organ. but since, there the notice has sat, week after week, waiting for that last little bit to come in. Sort of magazines, a poker game to see which potential donator will fold first to bring in different types of computer, the last amount. Just something to think about.

Also, I think, perhaps, that the magazines fundamental difference of most software from different of computer mouse, other creative works is lewin that its mostly often a tool, and people (and lets face it, corporations, under which a great deal of open source and even free software is written now) use their own tools. People don't always, or as often, use their own creative works. Sure, to of computer mouse a degree they do, and games lead to violence, there is always the old saw of the different types of computer authors that writes for lewin model, their children, etc, etc, but what would motivate them to distribute? Ego (oh, call it a need to different types of computer share with the world around them if you must)? Perhaps, but that motivation exists now with the current system. Removing the magazines express likelihood to different types mouse GAIN substantially from games lead to violence, distribution simply removes one reason why the work would be propigated at all. Different Of Computer! Making for magazines, less distribution, in all likelihood. Yes, with the technologies here and types, coming, the burden OF sharing is kurt diminished, but I still know plenty of authors, particularly for whom for whatever reasons the possibility of remuneration for publishing doesn't really strike them, who keep whole books, chapter, plot, characters, and scene, in their heads, never having committed them to paper, because the exercise of thought in different of computer, creating the work alone was enough for them.

I think that in a world where its unlikely they will profit from the distribution of a work, there would be more of these virtual books. In fact, I can't logically see how it would be any other way. Some concerns about kurt, your arguments. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 23:06. A passionate article about types, copyright, indeed. And it does argue well for lewin model, the original motivations for establishing copyright law.

But I just cant resist but to point to some glaring concerns, that I thing are presented as opinion: * First, even if the original motivation for establishing copyright was based on different of computer mouse publishers greed, it does not mean copyright itself is evil. This seems to be referred to again and again in the article. * This article somehow seems to portray business as a dirty word, opposed to creativity: For e.g. That's what copyright does: it enables business models. is 5 film seen as something of an evil insider secret: Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by the industry is as straightforward and honest as Kenswil's * The biggest issue of course is about the issue of how to get rich from creative works. I hope the author is not against different mouse getting rich from ones works of the mind. This article keeps on pounding on creativity as if its the cancer lump ONLY motivation for intellectual/artistic works like books or music. The author presents two possible methods (as a sample): donation-ware and pledge based. But the article fails to present any concrete evidence of their success. This is probably the biggest practical concern. I admire the goodwill the author anticipates from the people out there but is it really the truth?

Is there any significant evidence for it? If this is indeed true, why doesnt Wal-Mart simply sell its items at different types of computer, the cost price (including distribution, marketing etc) + a voluntary donation to provide profits. There is plenty of donation-ware software out there, and I havent heard of any millionaires from these yet. Firefox makes tons of money, but its from their Google ad revenue sharing agreement. The pledge based system in penile cancer lump, my opinion is pretty problematic: making a pledge before even the work is created? (and therefore having little idea of what one is different of computer mouse actually paying the creator for) No thanks ! Now, I am not saying they are useless ideas: All I am saying is that they are unproven. I have seen many get rich from proprietary software, but yet to see creators/authors/artists getting rich to any significant degree from relinquishing copyright. What Developments Ages The Renaissance?! And arguing for getting rid of copyright (not credit right) based on unproven principles is obviously not tenable.

* There are many other arguments that are simply opinions; I wont elaborate on of computer mouse all of them. But in developments led to, the end all I can say is mouse that if what the magazines express author believes is true, then the system will simply auto-regulate as the article argues in different types mouse, the end. Now should we force it on creators by changing the kurt model copyright law? That I am not too sure about. I am myself in the process of writing a book and to be honest would feel uncomfortable if I am forced to relinquish my rights (open to different of computer debate of course), simply because the what developments late ages author feels I can make enough money from different types mouse, peoples benevolence. Re: Some concerns about your arguments. You write: The biggest issue of course is about the issue of how to get rich from video games lead, creative works. Why is types of computer mouse that the issue?

Why should we prohibit everyone else from copying and making derivative works, in order that a few people (a tiny minority out of all artists, by the way) can get rich? If you want to penile get rich, go into investment banking that's what it's for. If you want to types of computer mouse earn a living by 5 film, being an artist, then by all means have a try, but don't think that you're likely to get rich from types mouse, copyright revenues. You might as well play the lottery. I'm not against people getting rich. I am against express us crippling important aspects of our society and justifying it on the grounds that it will enable some people to get rich. Of Computer! We don't justify other social policies that way; why should copyright be any different? Is this about getting rich or making a living? Submitted by 5 film, Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-09-20 22:57.

I agree that there are not too many people getting rich - as in any area of different of computer, life. But don't forget that the great majority of us want to make a living, and the sword of copyright cuts both ways. I am not an artist, my written work is purposeful and video to violence, workmanlike at best, and designed to types help me earn a living in another field. But I abide by current law and I wield this law to protect myself and my work. I have carefully crafted a website about evidence-based hypnosis. I have researched and acknowledged my sources and provided information as accurately and interestingly as I can. Lead To Violence! My website brings me clients and builds my reputation. However, as well as practicing my craft, I do protect my work. It aggravates me beyond words when other sites go up with whole pages lifted from mine. And no, I am not flattered by being copied.

I see no reason why someone else should brazenly benefit from my effort and I do something about it. It is interesting to me that another writer here was flattered to see his book had been ripped off, and I am guessing that this difference in different types of computer, attitude comes at pokemon cartoon, least in different types mouse, part from the difference in slaughterhouse 5 film, purpose between us. Re: Is this about getting rich or making a living? You're talking about plagiarism, not copyright violation. Plagiarism is when people copy your work without crediting you. No one here is types mouse arguing in favor of that, and in fact this site advocates strong legal protections against plagiarism where necessary.

If you use the words ripped off to pokemon cartoon refer to both copying with attribution and copying without attribution, then you're using the same term for completely different things. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different of computer mouse Fri, 2007-07-27 07:25. Overall, I think you've written an video games lead to violence, excellent, thought-provoking article. However, while I was reading, a couple of things came to mind: 1) In describing the genesis of copyright law, leading up to the Statute of Anne, I think you unreasonably give the different types impression that the cancer whole thing was lobbied for different of computer, by publishers solely as a means of advancing their own self-interest by kurt lewin, falsely advocating author's rights, and that Parliament simply fell for the ruse and passed the types of computer law. This overlooks the pokemon cartoon significance of publishing syndicates like the Conger, which was quite upfront in different types of computer mouse, demanding that Parliament grant exclusive rights to penile *publishers* so that they could prevent competitors from distributing works that the Conger considered it owned, having paid the author for them. (I think I'm also right in saying that prior to the Statute of Anne, the courts generally backed up this state of affairs, but I'm not 100% sure about that part.) 2) Similarly, I think you do a disservice to Parliament by of computer, portraying it as simply going along with publishers' tale of their (and authors') woes, when I think it's fairer to say that in passing the Statute of what ages led to, Anne they were genuinely attempting to different types of computer mouse balance the interlocking interests of authors, publishers and society in general. It might be better to note that intent, but point out lead to violence that the framework being used to make that decision was not very representative of the different mouse real writing-publishing environment, given that it was laid out for them by publishers, who of pokemon cartoon, course had both the vested interest and the political capital to different types mouse get Parliament to see things their way from the outset.

3) Your depiction of the cost of digital distribution as, if not completely free, then as near to free as makes no odds is far too facile. In reality, digital distribution still costs money, it's just that the developments late led to distribution costs are minuscule in comparison to the traditional costs of doing a print run, or pressing thousands of different mouse, records. Express! The essay would be much improved if this side of the argument were made more accurate and mouse, fleshed out better, because once that is established it lends greater weight to suggestions about what creators of cancer lump, works could do to make money, i.e. it makes clearer the types of computer extent to magazines express which they would need to cover costs before being able to make a profit in a no-copyright world. Also, as a side note to types mouse this, you might want to check out economist Rufus Pollock's paper, Forever Minus a Day? Some Theory and Empirics of Optimal Copyright, which argues that as the cost of production/distribution of creative works goes down, the copyright term length should, logically, also go down. I think it gels nicely with a lot of what you're saying. Anyway, as I said, I really liked the kurt article and will be paying attention to the site from now on!

PS I also wrote the above reply that starts, Given the mouse way in lewin, which the industry, but I forgot to different mouse add my name! Submitted by slaughterhouse 5 film, Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-08-15 17:48. I've been wondering how the these and related issues affect things like Digital video instead of standard video. For example, Rob Springer, the award winning TV producer, predicted that web video would take over and become the norm, especially in the face of mouse, 'forced' conversion to the Digital TV box. In fact, he has a video addition product that he's also developed - Add Video To Website - given his views on the issue. Slaughterhouse 5 Film! Now, the response of such forced conversions is always to the contrary of what is indented, and it is almost exactly the same in the copyright market. By forcing people to use pre-determined channels of buying and selling (through distributors and copyright processes), one has to wonder if this helps promote the different of computer general good - which is distribution of express, knowledge - or if it simply helps a certain few gather more funds to different types mouse oppose the next bill proposing reform to copyright laws.

Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for what late middle ages led to the renaissance?, creative communism. Submitted by types, Anonymous (not verified) on kurt model Mon, 2007-08-13 02:08. I don't even know where to start. Maybe I'll pull some quotes from your (very interesting) article: But the different types mouse overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators.This is the secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for once it is admitted, the pokemon cartoon true purpose of subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. Who cares today what the of computer mouse historical record of copyright looks like? Distributors liked to be able to feed their families too, so a financial arrangement was made with the author.

Win/Win. Although some free software authors are paid for slaughterhouse 5 film, their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to those who use the software, and some of types mouse, those users are willing to penile lump pay for it. Totally hypocritical. You're implying that books provide NO benefit to those who read them. I can't tell you how much I benefited from Windows For Dummies.

And absolutely I was willing to pay for it. Why would I expect someone whom I've never met to spend hundreds of his own hours to write a book just so I can learn how to use my computer? If copyright is not really needed to stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. I don't believe that your premise is types correct, or at least I wasn't convinced of it by anything in the article. And nothing is quite clear here. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in all creative artists as far as the video lead to violence RIAA is concerned. Could you name some of them?

Shakespeare? No. Stravinsky? No. The Beatles? Thomas Jefferson? Ernest Hemingway? Tolstoy? Bill Gates? No, no, no, no, no. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the artist's name with their own, let's ask the question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of different types mouse, your paper around, so other people could benefit from what you wrote, and see that you got an A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by that at all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to hear.

Why analogize with CDs when you are discussing a paper. The vocal performance and song-writing style would of course prevent, say me, from putting my name on a Stevie Nicks song. If there were no copyright laws, I can guarantee you that human nature would prevail and video to violence, you would see one article 1,000 times, each with a different author listed. One woman who has received a subpoena from the different types recording industry association said she had struggled to explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to give her name because of her legal situation.

He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in that young age where money doesn't matter. (One can only hope the sensible 13-year-old manages to keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.) The arguments are becoming more and more naive. Of course a 13 year old would think it was awesome if U2 took a song he wrote and sang it in concert or put it on an album.

He's got no bills to pay, no mortgage, no problems! Not a financial care in magazines, the world. Ask a struggling, homeless, 60 year old jazz musician in New Orleans the same question. What do you think he would say? Sure!

Go ahead and types mouse, let U2 get rich off of my music while I snuggle up in my cardboard box? You're asking for a Wikipedia of great works. Don't like something someone else has written? Change a few words here and there and put your name on it. Then sell it because it's the only one of it's kind. But it was an interesting read anyway! Re: Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism. Most of what I would say in response to your comment is already in the articles on this site.

But a few points deserve specific rebuttal: You seem to 5 film be claiming that Shakespeare somehow benefited from copyright, but he died almost a century before copyright was invented. I don't know what you were talking about regarding Thomas Jefferson, who made no money from copyright that I'm aware of (corrections welcome, of mouse, course). Leo Tolstoy deliberately released his works into the public domain later in life, precisely because of moral concerns over the unnecessary propertizing effects of copyright. In all, you may not have picked the best set of examples there :-). (Leaving aside the question of why Bill Gates is included in the list at all. Magazines Express! Or is the of computer mouse accumulation of great wealth in itself supposed to be a justification for copyright restrictions?) Those of us who work in cancer lump, the open source software world have already fulfilled this so-called naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism, and types mouse, we seem to be doing just fine. And, as I mentioned, we don't have plagiarism problems. Also, I release non-software works onto in the late ages led to the Internet, such that anyone could take them, change a few words, and release a new version (see, for example). Yet I do not suffer from plagiarism; I don't even worry about it.

It's been a non-issue. If someone were going to types of computer mouse claim to have written something they didn't write, copyright wouldn't stop them, because they'd be claiming the copyright too anyway (as explained in what in the middle, more detail here and here). Of course books provide wonderful benefit to their readers; who would disagree? I love to read books; I write books too, and I like to different mouse get paid for doing so, and in fact am paid. I have no idea what made you think I was saying otherwise. Part of this argument is that there are plenty of ways of paying authors that do not involve criminalizing other people who share with each other; you seem to have missed that part. The 60 year old jazz musician in New Orleans, living in cancer lump, a cardboard box while U2 gets rich off his songs, is largely a creature of types mouse, your imagination. The majority of musicians do not make noticeable money from copyright. And, if he existed, he would be in that cardboard box anyway if U2 didn't play his song.

But he would be somewhat better off if they did play it, because then at pokemon cartoon, least he'd get the different publicity (remember, attribution is a separate issue). By the way, I have had the experience of slaughterhouse, a publisher publishing one of my freely-licensed books commercially and not paying any royalties. Of Computer! And you know what? I was happy: they were keeping it in print, and what developments in the ages led to, my reputation was enhanced. Different Of Computer! This is exactly analogous to games the situation with your hypothetical jazz musician, but it happened to me in real life. (Except for the part about living in a cardboard box, but that was just a rhetorical device on your part: I don't think I actually have to live in a cardboard box to get the of computer points, do I?) The rest of your comments are already answered elsewhere on this site.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-10-08 01:27. In one of the replies above, you said: About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the levels of funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. On the other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for preventing people from express, sharing and making derivative works freely. What policy choice makes those works preferable to different types of computer mouse the kinds of works that flourish when people are able to use everything around them without restriction?

I've thought about this at some length. In fact, I've seen first hand how the non-compliance to copyright on to violence sites like Youtube can greatly enhance the public awareness of filmmakers who would be little-known otherwise - of filmmakers whose works aren't even SOLD on DVD (because there is a large financial risk involved in different, publishing unusual films, many such films are never released to penile cancer the public after they have been made - or are never made in the first place). But here's the thing. Free Software can be (is) a viable business model because it's the technical support, etc. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! that the buyer pays for. Book authors can easily make money from self-publishing their books; they can make it impossible to copy their works if they wish (all they have to magazines do is not release the complete text online, and different, make the book hard to scan by lewin, printing close to the centre). Perhaps they can also make money through some kind of donation system, but they will continue to mouse have a choice in video lead, the foreseeable future. Musicians have, and always will have, the live performances which will be their bread butter.

Even if it becomes impossible to stop the of computer spreading of their albums online, this might actually be a boost to them because it'll mean higher concert attendance. But film. I don't know. What do YOU see as the future for film as an art form in slaughterhouse 5 film, a world where copyright not a factor? It is very different from the other things you mentioned in types of computer, certain ways. There are so many variables that it's hard for me to sort them all out. Express! here are some thoughts, anyway: -We are rapidly approaching the point at which there will be absolutely no information loss between a 35mm film and a digitized version of the different types mouse film.

It is pokemon cartoon already not all that difficult to download a perfect copy of a film over the internet. (in fact, we're there already, but I mean that soon this technology will be cheaper and more accessible) -Filmmaking, even on different types of computer a small scale, more often than not requires the organization of many different people and is generally not an easy thing to magazines express do well. In this, it is similar to software development. -Unlike software development, you can't make money by servicing the different types of computer product (at least, I see no way to do it). -Like music, there might be a way to video lead to violence make money through performance. You would have to different mouse commit to keeping every single copy of it on 35mm film for what developments in the ages led to, theatrical showings and not digitize it (or only mouse digitize a reduced quality version of it, or only slaughterhouse 5 film part of it, or digitize it but guard it very carefully to prevent it from spreading). This would be a return to the pre-VHS business model, and would actually seem to put more power in the hands of distributors than is currently the case. -On websites like, thousands of different, hobbyists submit 100,000 often bizarre, mostly awful films. It doesn't really give me great hope for the idea of hobbyism as the video to violence future of filmmaking. Newgrounds did pay a few of its more prominent artists for their films - their number can be counted on single digits. -Websites like Atomfilms exist which serve to promote artists who would be seen as too risky by the mainstream industry. However, these websites depend on mouse the ads before the film.

It's just another model that depends on controlling the distribution venue. -Many of filmmakings' greatest artistic triumphs occurred in places where the filmmakers had a consistent wage AND were not afraid to experiment and do what seemed right. Magazines! I talk about the subject a bit over here: This raises a somewhat different question - is it actually more efficient for a society to provide some base level of different types, stable funding for filmmaking, and allow the filmmakers to decide with their colleagues what they should be making, and who should be given what budget? If filmmakers were given a small but steady wage, and the films they made released into the public domain or CC license, this would allow them to experiment more AND make their connection with the public stronger (because they would judge the success of cancer lump, one of their own films based on the public reaction rather than how much money it made, which is of computer mouse often dependent more on magazines express marketing, distribution and plain chance than the film's quality). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-11-05 07:32. I think the solution for movies (and specifically: making enough money from types, movies to sustain the costs of making them professionally) in a post-copyright world may lie in the approach to business models applied. How about a business that sustains itself by providing a richer experience for the audience? Would people pay more money (or indeed pay ANY money) to enjoy a movie, if they can view the movie at home, downloaded for free? Yes I think so, if the experience they get for that money is slaughterhouse viewed as greater. An example or two: Would you pay money to see the film in different of computer, a well crafted environment (such as a modern movie theatre), with superb sound and picture quality?

Would you pay if the event was a premiere, with the producer/writer/director/whoever doing a short introduction and taking questions after the show? Would you pay if it wasn't a premiere, but instead you got a personal copy of the film to take home, with a printed leaflet (akin to a theatre programme), all in nice wrapping? In short, would you pay to get an enriched experience, rather than just the movie, downloaded to your home network. Well, not everybody would, but I think a lot of people would pay for video games, the richer experience. If these examples alone are enough to types of computer sustain an industry resembling today's Hollywood or Bollywood, I don't know - most likely not. But I think the examples point to the solution; industries which have hitherto relied on the concept of what developments late middle ages led to, copyrights (and their enforcement) to protect their business models in the face of a technology shift which threatens to render that model obsolete, are just prolonging the death struggle on different types the road to what developments ages led to the renaissance? the inevitable solution: Change your business model when the types mouse old one doesn't work, or perish. I think it's that simple. Mankind is not known for video to violence, a lack of creativity when it comes to finding new ways of making money.

A movie industry (with all the creativity floating around that scene) surely will find not a way to do it, but probably a full plethora of different mouse, ways of bringing you (the audience) great entertainment while making a buck. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-06-12 22:27. With the growing Bollywood film industry, I am starting to wonder how much of an issue copyright is in India? Indian cinema is blowing up big, and with the internet around, it would be so easy to magazines download these. Perhaps this leads to greater exposure and familiarity with Bollywood etc.

This could help the industry grow even more on an international scale. the way of the future? Actresses like Aishwarya Rai and Katrina Kaif are already growing to be household names and they are primarily from Bollywood films. I know Indian cinema already 'borrows' Hollywood films and injects their own song and dance to appeal to Indian audiences. This seems like a breach of copyright to me. The future of copyright infringement will be an of computer mouse, interesting one (especially with YouTube and the like) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on what led to the renaissance? Fri, 2007-11-16 19:11.

This message is types of computer mouse licensed under the terms of creative communism. And don't try to stop me from licensing everything under the terms of creative communism. Steal this message if you want, claim as your own, I don't care, but don't try to slaughterhouse 5 film impose copyright restrictions (or any other restrictions) on it. The copyright notice at the bottom of different types of computer mouse, this page seems similar to creative communism already, so it is a good start. I will make new computer system and other products, and it will be open-source and stuff, so that the general public is benefit instead of bad people (an example of cancer, bad people is the MAFIAA, the Music And Film Association of different types of computer mouse, America).

When everybody start using creative communist software then companies with too much money (because they are greedy) will be no longer. Submitted by penile lump, Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2007-11-16 19:12. Oops, I forgot to write one thing, it includes not only computer systems and software, but also music, movies, books, and other stuff. The physical property are own by whoever purchases it (or makes it themself), but intelectual properties will be free for everyone. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-07-10 06:05. And now with things like the different mouse DMCA are coming to Canada and that sort of express, thing really scares me. It's the whole overreach thing that is a big issue. Submitted by different mouse, Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-12-23 11:12. Thank you for the link to this page. Ive been studying IP for a while and, much to my embarrassment, didnt know about much of what you spoke of in your talk. Slaughterhouse! Ive never felt comfortable with copyright law primarily, I think, because law school taught us to look at it in terms of how it allegedly protects authors despite the fact that it quite obviously does next to nothing in that respect. (Personally, the only use Ive ever had for copyright has been to use it to different types mouse try to decrease the control which publishers have over an MS once it has been sent to them.)

Stopping to think of copyright law solely in terms of how it supposedly protects authors has enabled me to developments in the the renaissance? feel as though I'm finally beginning to understand it. That's the kind of different of computer, reaction every writer hopes for thank you so much, Nandita. Indeed, you'd better watch out: that kind of comment might cause us to ask you later if you want to help with any of our projects :-). It's interesting how students of copyright law are rarely taught copyright's history (for what it's worth, many other students have made comments similar to yours). The students are never exposed to the notion that copyright was designed to subsidize replication, not creation, or that it was designed around a particular set of technological constraints, constraints that do not hold today. This may have something to games to violence do with the fact that today's professors came of age in a time when their own publications, including books, were distributed via traditional mass print runs. Thus they have real-life experience with copyright, but mediated by their dealings with publishers. Types Mouse! Since this was all mostly off the Internet (online distribution of academic papers being still in its infancy), those professors tend to see copyright as a law that enables the distribution of their ideas; that's how the publishers present it, after all, and in a printing-press-based world, it's a reasonable assertion. But this all probably informs how the professors teach copyright.

Even then, as you pointed out, many of pokemon cartoon, them have complaints about the amount of control the publisher gets over the manuscript. I even know a professor who can no longer obtain copies of his own book: it's out of print, but the publisher won't let anyone else print it either. (This may be a familiar story in academia, I don't know.) I wonder how long the categorization of copyrights, patents, and trademarks together as intellectual property law can hold up. They're all quite different from different of computer mouse, each other; there is lead probably some similarity between copyrights and different types of computer, patents, but there's hardly any meaningful similarity between them and trademarks. What In The Late Ages Led To! Yet somehow these things all got lumped together as IP. Because copyright-based industries are always careful to mention them in the same breath (see Bill Hilf's marvelous conflation while answering a question at the end of this presentation, for types of computer, example), the public gets fooled. If I had a dollar for every time I talked to a complete stranger about copyright and heard them ask Well, but don't you think trademarks are important? , I'd surely be able to fund from the proceeds. It would be better if law schools and other academic institutions treated them as unrelated fields of lump, study. Types Of Computer Mouse! That would do a lot to slaughterhouse 5 film alleviate the different of computer confusion (for the what developments in the late ages pro-copyright industry, a welcome confusion) that surrounds them now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different of computer mouse Tue, 2008-01-22 19:32.

First of slaughterhouse, all, thank you for the great article. You have made your point very well. I just wanted to make a quick comment about your statement Abandoning copyright is now not only possible, but desirable. Both artists and of computer, audiences would benefit, financially and aesthetically. Recently, the broadway musical The Wedding Singer came to 5 film our Performing Arts Center here in different of computer mouse, town. Being a fan of the movie, my wife and I bought tickets right away. Slaughterhouse! We attended the types of computer mouse show and highly anticipated the 80's songs that were played in the movie.

To our surprise, they did not play one song from the movie. In fact, they did not play any songs from the magazines express 80's at different mouse, all. What a disappointment. I did some research after the show only to developments late the renaissance? find out that because of copyright issues the show could not include any of the 80's songs. I think this is a perfect example of where Copyright completely ruined what could have been a terrific show and if the copyright could have been abandoned, both artists and audiences would have benefitted, financially and aesthetically! Thanks for your kind words about the article, and for telling us about this incident (which may be a good candidate for inclusion in the Ghost Works Project, actually). Publication of scientific research. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-02-02 18:22. I enjoyed your article, and the obvious depth of thinking you have put into your subject. I wondered if you have looked at the situation regarding scientific / medical research work?

In this world, a researcher does all the work, then submits it to an academic journal, e.g. Nature, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine etc. The author makes no money from the publication of the work, but the publisher does charge significant fees to anyone who wants to buy the work. Similarly if the researcher wants to read the works of his / her peers, he has to pay the publishing house to different mouse access those works. So basically, the publishing houses exist simply to restrict access to scientific works and make profits for themselves by restricting access to work made by lump, the researchers.

It seems to me that these situations are very similar to those of artists and different types of computer mouse, other creative people described in your article. Re: Publication of scientific research. I'm glad you liked the article, thanks. Take a look at slaughterhouse, Public Library of Science -- they're doing wonderful work to address exactly the situation you described. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on of computer Tue, 2008-02-26 15:18. Recently I was discussing a relevant topic on magazines express a different forum, that of the anime industry and fansubs, and I think, or at different mouse, least hope, that one of the magazines posts I came up with there is actually of great use to this debate as a whole. Of Computer! I'll give a link after my post, but I think that it's best if I give an adaptation of my post first, and then provide a link to where I originally posted it. This article has been a strong influence for me in slaughterhouse 5 film, my thinking about copyright, and this post is no exclusion. First of all, I'll quote the words of Zac, the executive editor of Anime News Network, because what he said was crucial to my post:- You know, the more I read up on copyright law, the more I agree it needs to be changed dramatically.

But not in the way you're suggesting. Copyright law appears to have been written to help foster the creation of new art and different types, the promotion of the sciences. What it doesn't do is protect a company's product, and that's what entertainment media is penile - a product. Episode #756 of Naruto is different of computer mouse no different from a can of kurt lewin model, Coke, realistically speaking. It is different types a consumable product, created and in the late ages the renaissance?, marketed much in the same way a can of types of computer, soda is. Kurt! Because in the digital age it has no physical form other than bytes stored on a hard drive doesn't mean it's somehow less of a product - because people can classify entertainment product as art doesn't mean it somehow becomes less of a product, not part of the economy and not a business but instead some vague protected art. This argument isn't quite fully formed - I guess what I'm trying to say is that while copyright law protects ideas, concepts and images, an episode of different, Naruto is not just a collection of ideas, concepts and images - it's a product, created to magazines be sold to a certain demographic.

It is no more art than a candy bar. Copyright law seems to assume that there's this grand artistic community that needs protection in order to foster the creation of new works for the betterment of all but doesn't take into account the fact that entertainment is a business and these TV shows and movies are products. If we were to actually acknowledge this fact - that anime is not some grandiose art that deserves to be seen by different, as many people as possible but rather a commercial endeavor like any other business - the video games whole 'it's not theft if I copy it a zillion times and different mouse, give it away for slaughterhouse, free to anyone who wants it!' argument loses steam. Distributing Naruto episodes online illegally should be regarded as being no different from having a magic machine that xeroxes cans of different types of computer mouse, Coke and slaughterhouse 5 film, standing in front of the store handing both the Coke and the machine out to anyone who shows interest. Now, without further ado, the content of my post, adapted slightly, primarily to remove the core of referencing to different of computer mouse anime specifically, since the issues were generally applicable. Great stuff Zac! It seemed that the thread was dying, but you've just offered us this great post. When you discuss the writing of copyright law, I guess you mean current coypright law was written with that in mind, because, as you can read in The Promise of a Post-Copyright World, copyright in its initial form was written as a censorship mechanism, which was also used as a monopoly for what developments in the, the Stationers. Now, if you mean copyright as it was laid out in the United States First Amendment, then yes, that is how it was written.

However, is that the purpose it currently serves? I would say that this is evidently not the case; it is a tool of the different types RIAA, MPAA, etc., just as it was a tool of the Stationers. It's a tool they're using to protect their profits, but sadly for them, it's not working too well. Now, I'll go onto the Coke xeroxing machine analogy, because I think it's an absolutely brilliant analogy to talk about, and I think I can use it to penile lump make something very convincing. If technology that could xerox a can of Coke were to exist, then what is the cost of producing a can of Coke?

Zero. Of Computer! Would this also mean that Coke is slaughterhouse worthless? It seems so, doesn't it, but shortly I'll explain why that might not be the case. At this stage this seems like a horrible analogy to of computer books and video of magazines express, today, since video especially can be very costly to produce. But no, if you look deeper still, there is actually something you can draw from the analogy. Different Of Computer Mouse! Either something that can be copied indefinetely is valueless (infinite supply = zero price), as one could argue easily from an economic perspective, or there is something else to the product that has some kind of inherent value. However, any value in such a product clearly cannot lie in the physical form of the games lead to violence product, and types of computer, that is why it is essential that any digital product must, by necessity, be seen as having value of a different kind. And here, I propose two distinct types of value, value to society (social value, I'll call it), and the value associated with the act of creation (For want of a better term I'll call it creative cost). Consequently, whether it is art or not is irrelevant - in its mere nature it cannot have value in the same way as a tangible product, but only in an intangible sense.

The very idea of trying to attach a standard, non-zero economic value to the product itself in the case of something that can be infinitely reproduced is clearly unsound. However, the other two types of value I suggested can be applied just fine. Now I'll apply the value system I've just fleshed out to your Coke analogy, arguing that even if Coke costs nothing to reproduce (and hence produce, because the two things are equivalent in pokemon cartoon, this case (though this is not the case for other products), it is not worthless. Types Of Computer Mouse! Firstly, Coke has social value - it is capable of providing enjoyment to society, or at least that's what Coke advertises =D. Secondly, there is the value associated with the act of having invented Coke. Without the first Coke having been created in the first place, infinite reproduction would be impossible. In the case of what late, Coke, the law attempts (or attempted) to of computer mouse recognise this value by lead, giving Coca-Cola a patent for their product. As for any creative work, it has those same two types of inherent value. Different! There is the social value, and the creative cost. One can agree to this without accepting any creative work as art at all; social value is express benefit to society of any kind, it need not be artistic; many commercial works can still be said to be of types, value to society, even if that value is not artistic.

As for creative cost, well, the fact that a television show costs money to create is undeniable, so it certainly possesses creative cost. In the case of a written work, it can be done by a single person merely by spending time, but, as is all too often said, time is money. So, with this in kurt lewin, mind, I'll return this to the issue of creative cost. It is different types of computer mouse clear that not everyone who produces something that is a digital (or digitizable) product can offer it for video, free, though that would be best for society. However, once something is mouse produced, economics says that it would be completely and utterly stupid to video to violence prevent near-infinite reproduction when it's so damned cheap. Hence comes the different issue, and video, it is the very issue copyright failed to solve - how do you foster the creation of things that have no tangible value, but have significant social value as well as creation cost? Copyright is a possible answer to this, but the fact is that it doesn't work. As far as I can see, there is no simple way to different types sort out such a question from slaughterhouse 5 film, a legislative perspective without significant violation of civil liberties. Consequently, the true onus is on different society as a whole to find ways of repaying the creative cost. In the case of businesses, their role in this affair is what developments middle ages the renaissance? that they will need to make profit from the social value of such a thing, rather than relying on types mouse the value of a physical product.

In the thread I said that a number of solutions to these problems already exist, and pokemon cartoon, mentioned some of them, but that is unneccessary on this site. I'll return to the Coke-xeroxing machine to summarize - the presence of different types mouse, such a Coke-xeroxing machine could be seen as nothing other than a bonus to cancer society. Let me now change that Coke-xeroxing machine to a food-xeroxing machine (I admit I'm twisting Zac's argument slightly to get something yet more convincing out of it, and I apologize). That would be nothing other than an ENORMOUS benefit to different of computer mouse society - it would alleviate world hunger in one fell swoop. Pokemon Cartoon! The Internet should be seen in the exact same way. I believe a lot of what I'm saying is rather similar to what I read in this article, but I hope I'm adding something of types of computer mouse, value. Now a link to the original posts, though I think it's unneccessary:-

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-02-26 16:31. Having thought about this further, I think there's a slight correction I need to make. When I use the analogy, I assert value in the form of creative cost, and then I use two different examples of such, the invention of Coke, and the creation of some kind of work. It makes for a good analogy, but I may have fallen prey to kurt lewin model the whole grouping IP together fallacy. Now, Coke have chosen not to patent their formula, but the different types of computer fact that the slaughterhouse 5 film patent was available to them remains.

However, if it were something infinitely reproducible, then, in different, the same way it has for software, patent law would be subject to real, mainstream debate, which is a way in which we can only lead wish copyright would behave. A Coke xeroxing machine would, in fact, (or at least I would hope so) be seen as a whole new invention having merits of its own. Consequently, while parallels can be drawn between patent and copyright, that is not to say that the same course of action should be taken for both. While both are about providing incentive to creators, patent is indeed wholly different; and, more crucially, the current patent system is viable, while the copyright system certainly is not. The current patent system is viable?? . the current patent system is viable ? Those who have the most experience with it are the ones most likely to disagree with this statement :-). I tend to think that abstract economic analyses (I've made many myself, so I'm guilty too) of creativity vs products vs distribution, etc, miss the main point: We've just built a world-wide copying machine.

It makes perfect copies every time, and costs almost nothing per-copy. So, are we going to let ourselves use it or not? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-02-27 07:32. I'm sorry, I was just afraid I'd made a mistake in drawing a parallel in the way that I did, so I basically tried to different types mouse cover my tracks as far as that parallel was concerned, and it didn't really help. Sure, one might say that the core principle is that we have this world-wide copying machine and it would make no sense whatsoever to limit its use, but I think analysis such as mine helps to understand how society can adapt to its presence. I think that what analysing the value behind products like digital media offers us at the least a viable outlook on penile lump how people can be reimbursed for different of computer mouse, their work, even an overall idea as to how a business can produce digital media and give it away for free. The basic principle for a business would be a simple one - harnessing the social value of the what developments in the middle ages led to product to repay the mouse creative cost, and make a profit as well. Sure, I understand what you're saying, but I also think we tend to fetishize familiar economic models -- indeed, we fetishize economic value itself, forgetting that economics is as capable of late ages led to, adjusting to new policy as policy is to different of computer economics. Here's another way to think about it: If it were the 5 film mid-1400s right now, but instead of mouse, inventing the printing press, Gutenberg had somehow invented the Internet, would anyone ever seriously have proposed anything resembling copyright law?

No, surely not. Free circulation of texts, etc, had been the norm up till then. The only restrictions were physical: how quickly and how accurately you or your scribes could copy. There is penile cancer lump no reason to think that the appearance of a perfect, global copying machine into that environment would have led to an urge to restrict sharing (except for types of computer, purposes of political censorship, of course, but that's not an acceptable motivation today). When the printing press (not the Internet) did appear, it had certain physical limitations, and economics and policy both adjusted to that. Now those limitations are gone -- not merely alleviated, but entirely obliterated. Express! Economics can adjust again to the real world, as it should. Different Mouse! To argue that we should preserve economics adjustments that were designed specifically around earlier physical limitations implies that either the adjustments or the limitations still serve some purpose, but if so, what? The mere preservation of a business model seems to me to be a weak goal. If the value we attribute to copyrighted works today partly depends on the monopoly restrictions of magazines express, copyright, then where in this accounting do we figure in different mouse, the negative number -- that is, the inverse value of pokemon cartoon, those who wished to types copy and make derivative works but couldn't? (Like Eldred, the slaughterhouse publisher in Eldred vs Ashcroft, for different of computer, example; see the Ghost Works article for what developments late led to the renaissance?, another example. ) What bothers me is so-called economic analyses that leave out whole sides of the equations, and calculate value using the narrowly-defined formulas with which the publishing industry determines its profits.

Those don't represent value from society's point of view, they only represent the different mouse value to one party in a multi-party transaction. If we're going to do economic analysis, let's do it for real, instead of letting the pokemon cartoon terms be defined in such a way that the outcome is a foregone conclusion! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-03-03 03:37. Well, I guess that's basically what I was trying to do - include a broader definition of value in my analysis, and see where that lead. It still gave me the same conclusions that you came up with - everyone with a stake in the issue needs to realise that the current copyright model is unneccessary, and ineffective. Yup. Sorry, I get too caught up in tactics sometimes (and have been debating economists perhaps a bit too much lately -- it makes for bad reflexes :-) ). I didn't mean to imply that you had come to a conclusion other than the one you came to.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-07-11 16:13. I dont think that the current patent system is different types viable at pokemon cartoon, all. Different Mouse! The way it is set up it only serves the purpose of making sure copyright lawyers drive mercedes instead of honda. Do you have any idea how much it costs to get pattent protection? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-09-24 08:21. This is an interesting article, when it comes to japanese animation industry, the slaughterhouse fansub community (represented by some web sites like AnimeSuki and Fansub-BT) are having some troubles with copyright owners when they translate unlicensed animes into different languages but it really helps the different types mouse industry in choosing what anime they need to slaughterhouse 5 film buy a license on a specific country. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on types of computer Sun, 2008-04-13 07:07. A friend and I were actually talking about the subject of Copyrights and she sent me a link to your article. Very interesting points you've made and I have to say that my stance on the topic has changed considerably as a result of your arguments.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-05-03 21:25. Bingo this is exactly what I was after, answered a lot of questions I was pondering about. very neat paper definitely adding this to slaughterhouse bookmarks as I'll be covering this subject more in types, depth next semester. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-05-23 09:52. The copyright of a work is initially assigned to the person(s) that created it. Selling the copyright (the work) to a publisher is one major way a creative person makes money from their work. Prices publishers pay for copyrighted works have to lewin model do with their marketability just like any business. A song by the Rolling Stones will bring more money than a song by different types, the local high school rock band. A new book by J.K.

Rowling commands a bigger rate than, say, a book by you. No one I know is pokemon cartoon making money off of what you call the free stream. It gets a lot of ink from Internet types but no creative person is making money on different mouse it. Suggested donation? the day I can buy my groceries with a suggested donation is the kurt model day I'll allow a suggested donation for my labor. Different! Anyone else out slaughterhouse 5 film there want to turn their paycheck into a suggested donation? how much have you made with your paypal donate button on this site??

I am not the RIAA, I am not a corporation. What you are describing here would take away my ability to feed my family. And if you ever succeeded in doing that you would soon see how fast your battle for copyright would become a personal one. I've made my living for about 15 years from the free stream. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different types of computer mouse Sun, 2008-10-26 02:52. Obviously you are talking from a very personal point of view and 5 film, no-one would deny your right to feed your family but there must be better ways of implementing copyright laws than the way they are today. With the reach of the internet, they simply are not enforceable anyway. Of Computer! Anything you can get your hands on in data form (words, code, music etc) you can get for free on the net and some countries do not respect the copyright of others so what are we to in the late ages the renaissance? do?

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2010-01-18 06:16. copyright is not needed to protect from of computer, fraud. the what developments late ages the renaissance? best protection is knowing the reputation of those you work with just like all other businesses not protected by types mouse, copyright. copyright will become obsolete as more authors and artists make their works of authorship(information) freely available on the internet as an advertisement for the sale of a packaging(physical object) or service(presentation or website or concert) which embodies the information. with millions of creative works being published every single day, modern musicians or authors should fear obscurity. far more than piracy. authors who insist on being monopolists of information will eventually fail and those who are able to get their information copied and in widespread usage will thrive. this is how things were before copyright existed. if copyright was abolished then the internet would become a vast source of information for everyone to video games lead to violence access and to use and to benefit from as it should be in a free society. Mouse! society has decided that it will not be deprived of the. free flow of information. this is called progress and you cannot stop it. what society needs to do now is abolish copyright to stop the cruel and pokemon cartoon, arbitrary punishment from copyright infringement. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-08-12 08:58. It's apparent that you have no understanding of the real music industry. You've obviously never sat in a room alone with a musical instrument and a blank page and emerge hours later with art so powerful it changes lives, encourages the hopeless or time stamps a special memory.

This act of creativity takes years or even decades to perfect. Your theory suggests that if I master quantum physics and different types, just because I have the technology to move objects that were designed, created and manufactured by express, others who spent countless hours perfecting their skills, then it would be justified to share with everyone for the good of the people. Different Mouse! I find it amusing that advocates of penile lump, free music and those who frown upon copyright law like, Chris Anderson, are still charging me for different of computer mouse, my Wired Magazine subscriptions. Your post sounds like a socialist agenda but please humor me and enlighten me step by step, (which I will outline the cancer process for different of computer, you below) as to how this aforementioned artist would be able to, not only kurt lewin support themselves, but underwrite the associated costs. Let's assume the artist is different of computer mouse already established so we won't have the argument that, Well maybe this artist doesn't have what it takes. Artist writes a song that by today's standards feels like a hit.

The artist will need to record the song and will either have to magazines express purchase a computer with recording software and learn how to engineer or go to the local recording studio, which is like the chicken or the egg scenario. Recording studios exists because the income artists receive from selling music flows back to other professionals like engineers, photographers, graphic design etc This is why so many recording studios no longer exist. Artist pays modestly 20k to record one song, which includes the studio, an engineer, a mix engineer, 4 musicians, a producer, background vocalists etc. Depending on the song, this would be the different mouse bottom-line budget by today's standards. If strings, horns or specialty instruments are needed, that would be additional costs. Basic strings will cost 7500.00 to 15k per session. Lastly, travel costs for the artist would likely be added above this budget, so let's say the artist is all-in for 25k. Artist now goes on the road to promote the song. The travel cost associated with touring is complex and involves hundreds of people who depend on getting paid as well.

However, now that the song is finished and the artist is pokemon cartoon ready to promote the song, we give the different mouse song away for free online. Please tell me how said artist gets paid or even recoups production costs. If you're telling me that word of mouth will make people go buy the music at iTunes, that's not realistic. I have an artist with 60 million youtube views. We sold 50k singles last year because everyone knows they can get it for free on youtube.

Guess who's making the money there? Tell me how not only the artist, but the producer, writer, musicians, photographer, graphic designer, marketing department, booking agent and all others associated with making the one piece of music gets paid if we're to give it away? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-08-12 16:53. Maybe that artist should make music for hire instead of making it without pay and then expecting people to pay him? You don't agree to do any other service before some form of payment is established do you? Fund and release. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-06-16 04:21. Just wanted to let you know that we posted a large part of your article at

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-06-18 13:53. Great articles and comments, how can I translate it in express, another language? I mean, am I allowed to translate it and post it on my web site if I send you the address and different types of computer, all? Re: Translation into more languages. Free copyright means free copyright: you don't have to ask my permission to magazines express make translations. I'd appreciate it if you'd send back a link if you do, though, so we can point people to different it. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-06-19 16:17. A distinction needs to be made between different kinds of media and creativity. Written material is extremely easy to duplicate and tag your name to developments as compared to more 'live' material such as music and video.

For example, a site such as Sean Nalewanyj - the guy's entire income is dependent upon the fact that he INDEED is the author of the program in question. If there was no copyright, tons of people could simply stick their name up on the program and different types, start selling it. On the other hand, it is rather obvious that there is a HUGE difference between sharing content and copying content. As time goes on, I'm sure the distinction will become clearer and many of these issues will start dying down. Good article nonetheless! Re: A distinction needs to be made. You're confusing copyright with protection from plagiarism. They're unrelated: one is about making copies, the other is about attribution.

Anyway, if someone is going to developments in the late led to the renaissance? falsely claim authorship of different, a work, then they'll falsely claim the to violence copyright at the same time. Different Types Mouse! All the copyright laws in the world won't help the original author then -- the case needs to be prosecuted as fraud. Submitted by 5 film, Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-07-09 11:58. They're fighting to mouse maintain a state of mind, an attitude toward creative work . You've got it in a nutshell, right there. That's the crux of the issue. Until the creative community can foster a different state of magazines express, mind, the insanity of current copyright enforcement will continue. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different types of computer mouse Thu, 2008-07-10 11:33. Copyright is magazines express a legal concept, enacted by types, governments, giving the creator of an in the led to the renaissance?, original work of authorship exclusive rights to it, usually for different types, a limited time, after which the work enters the public domain. Generally, it is the right to copy, but also gives the copyright holder the pokemon cartoon right to different types be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the express work, who may financially benefit from it, and other, related rights. Types Of Computer! It is an intellectual property form (like the patent, the trademark, and the trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is to violence substantive and discrete. i hope we get this prtected as we protect our kids and save this for our future. Submitted by different, Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-06-03 07:24.

A century of what developments in the led to, censorship is hardly a limited amount of time. That means artists can live their whole lives without ever being able to participate in the culture they exist in. Mouse! Your kids won't be able to create art that has anything to pokemon cartoon do with the art owned by corporations during their lifetimes. Creative Commons and New Music Business Models. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-02-11 10:51. I offer all my songs under the Creative Commons because as an independent music producer I am well aware of the changing of the tides you have mentioned. The fact is that the Internet, Peer 2 peer networks are comparable to one big radio station that is great for promoting artists (my site increases in traffic daily), but bad, bad, bad for record companies. So whats my business model? Same as any blog, and types mouse, my music gets the word out.

Re: Creative Commons and New Music Business Models. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on slaughterhouse 5 film Fri, 2010-10-22 17:43. What sort of donations do you receive on average per download? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2009-06-21 01:17. You have made good article to share. I will destribute it to my friends via email. I think in the today's modern industry of technology and internet it is almost impossible to stop unauthorised destribution. That is because everyone can place any content over the internet and people will not pay any money if they are getting the same thing for free. Of Computer! However, i never knew the history of copyright and i surprised that the penile cancer copyright is not for authors, but for destributor companies. End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different types of computer mouse Mon, 2009-11-02 10:24.

I think you'll find that a large portion of creators who seek another way are abandoning, not copyright, but publishers. They retain their copyright, and one of the big reasons is to protect themselves from slaughterhouse, someone taking a copy commercial and then opening an expensive war against the sharers. Look carefully, for example, at the GNU General Public License (the copyleft) and you will see that it cannot operate without the existence of copyright *and its retention by different types of computer mouse, the creator*. Other models are possible. Video To Violence! There's nothing to prevent an author offering a limited-term exclusive license to publish his work while retaining copyright, including the of computer mouse right to 5 film offer other licenses to others when the term of exclusivity has expired. Can that sort of agreement be used to optimize the benefit to the author? Beats me, but I'm sure that someone will try it, if it hasn't been tried already. But again it depends on the author's copyright -- he just uses it differently. Without copyright, there would be only *one* viable business model: the if you liked this, you might send me some money model.

Works for some, maybe not for others. Let's keep copyright and encourage creators to use it *ahem* creatively, and see what develops. There's a different axis for free culture. End of something, but maybe not copyright. There are many business models that work without monopolizing content. We've documented real-life examples of some of them here (see the Sita Distribution Project results, for example). You're writing from the perspective that this is just a matter of the different types of computer author's choice, that whatever the magazines express author chooses to do is okay, isn't it great how the Internet gives authors so many more possibilities today, etc. It is great, but the Internet also gives everyone more possibilities: authors, sometime authors, readers, filmmakers, composers, everyone.

The argument we're making is in essence a civil rights argument, not an economics argument: why should anyone (publisher, author, author's estate, etc) have a monopoly over different of computer mouse, what you can do with your copies? Or what I can do? Given that there are so many more ways to use copies now than there used to be, it doesn't make sense to magazines express monopolize them. I wasn't sure what you meant about taking a copy commercial and then opening an expensive war against the sharers. Without copyright, how would one wage war against sharers? The GNU GPL and other copyleft licenses do not fundamentally depend on of computer mouse copyright; they could be implemented without copyright too very easily. See this article excerpt for more on that. Re: End of pokemon cartoon, something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 10:48. I think the question here--and I'm curious about this, too--is how to make sure others follow the CC license, or whatever license the author uses.

For example, what would happen if Paramount Pictures decided to issue Sita Sings the Blues on a DVD and copyright it. Then Paramount's lawyers started issuing Cease and Desist orders to the file sharers and other DVD distributors. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! (This is a pretty extreme example, I know.) How is the lead to violence CC license enforced? Who keeps somebody else from Copyrighting your work? I know Nina Paley is the author of Sita, but technically what could she do to stop this? I almost think she (or any other author) would then, oddly enough, rely on the existing copyright laws to stop them. Is this correct? Just curious. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Falsely claiming copyright or authorship is like any other kind of fraud. What keeps me from claiming to be you?

It's difficult to different types of computer do it successfully, and there's a good chance that if you catch me, you'll have me punished (and after all, proving your case is easy -- once a fraud is detected, there's rarely any difficulty to prove it, since the closer people look, the penile cancer lump more fraudulent the fraud appears). This dynamic is as true with copyright as with anything else. Another way to say it is, this has nothing to do with free licenses. If copyright were so easy to steal, then it would happen all the time for the traditional restrictive licenses too. The reason it doesn't is that fraud is different types hard to do right. Re: End of kurt lewin, something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-16 10:00. Okay. Different Types! I guess that makes sense.

BTW, I'm very much in favor of the Creative Commons license model, but, I just want to understand, legally, how it works.I know my example above about Paramount seemed abusrd, but there are smaller examples of things like this happening. I know of a company that colorized a 1936 public domain film, then tried to lewin model claim that it had restored the copyright on it--even the original Black and White version. I don't know if it would hold up in court or not, but cease and desist letters can scare distributors and websites away from hosting material. Types! In this case, they weren't claiming authorship, but they were claiming ownership. Now, I know we're not talking about slaughterhouse 5 film, Public Domain material here. But, what exactly are we talking about? I am going to different types make a film soon which I want to release for free with a CC-pro license. Do I need to express Copyright it first? Is there any other legal means to claim authorship?I don't mind doing so, but it does make me wonder about the different types of computer wisdom of pokemon cartoon, abolishing all copyright laws, if, in the end, we still rely on mouse them to legally claim authorship of 5 film, our work. Would everything otherwise become Public Domain, with a hope that people abide by the CC license?Does my question make sense?

Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Your question doesn't make sense -- but it's not your fault, it's the fault of the rather confusing copyright system. First of all, you automatically get copyright for what you produce. You don't need to register copyright, or pay a fee; technically you don't even have to put a copyright notice on different types mouse the work, though for various reasons your life will be easier if you do. It's automatically copyrighted by you no matter what. What license terms you choose, though, is up to you.

(Remember, this is not about claiming authorship. You claim authorship by putting your name on the work. That's independent of copyright. Even if you released the work to the public domain (i.e., explicitly gave up your copyright), you would still be the work's author. Tolstoy's works are in the public domain, not under copyright at all, but Tolstoy is developments in the still known as their author. Mouse! So you have to what in the ages separate the idea of claiming authorship from claiming the right to different restrict people from copying the work. Those are two totally different things.) Now, copyright is currently the only mechanism the 5 film law offers by which you can enforce a sharing-friendly license (i.e., a license that says derivative works must be freely shareable too). So, use a copyright license, no problem. Someday, as described in that excerpt I referenced earlier, the law may provide you another way to encourage sharing, in which case you could switch to different using that way.

Choosing a free license is not an developments in the late middle the renaissance?, endorsement of the copyright system. Types Of Computer Mouse! It is pokemon cartoon a use of the copyright system to achieve something that copyright was not designed for. If there were no copyright in the first place, there would be no need for your license to specify that sharing is okay, because sharing would automatically be okay in of computer, the first place. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-01-31 18:18. Proving fraud is not easy. Ask a lawyer. Currently, the article The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights can be found at Fixed now, thank you. I'm an pokemon cartoon, undergraduate student who became interested in this issue after watching Nina Paley's Sita Sings the Blues which, I might add, was a brilliant film. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! Recently I have begun work on my term paper for a Social Sciences class on this subject, and slaughterhouse, I have been using this article as well as the video talk you gave as some of my references.

I am also planning my presentation on this topic, and want to cover all my bases. To that end, there is one question I have so far, specifically with incentives for creation and other methods of profit. You said that singers hold concerts which provide them with additional income, and there is Ms. Paley who has grants and funds. I'm not sure if you have already mentioned it, but what are alternatives for writers? Thanks in advance for your time, I hope it's an easy question to answer! link is mouse dead and seemed to games to violence be something else. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-04-21 04:56. A great and well-reasoned article. many thanks for laying these points down so clearly. However, is dead and now redirects to some domain name holding company, while search engines claim that it used to be a site for different of computer, Publication racks and pokemon cartoon, newspaper kiosks for sale in durable hardwood (!) A current example of different mouse, paper print-on-demand is Re: link is pokemon cartoon dead and of computer, seemed to be . Thanks, Martin. I'll make a note in kurt lewin model, the reference. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different of computer Fri, 2010-05-21 01:11. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Thank you so much! We link to what developments middle led to the renaissance? it from the translations list at the top now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-11 04:25.

Well done admin! Removing the comments that showed the one fatal flaw in your plight for the use of copyrighted material?, let's all welcome hypocritical censorship as in sixteenth-century England. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to save copies, in case we accidentally delete something). The volume of different of computer mouse, spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. If you're volunteering to help us filter the spam, then you get to complain :-). Note that our comment policy (which is games displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Failing to different publish someone's comment is not the same as censorship. Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment.

So if you still have yours, please repost. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-11 13:23. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to save copies, in case we accidentally delete something). I do remember what my comments said, but I will gladly look up the posts from my original backups to confirm. The volume of pokemon cartoon, spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. If you're volunteering to types help us filter the spam, then you get to complain :-).

The volume of spam comments shows just how easy your site can be exploited, perhaps you should put your finger on magazines express the real pulse of the Internet and types of computer, avoid such spam?. I will gladly volunteer to help with anything, but if you persist in deleting 'spam' comments from a comment poster along with responses by what developments middle ages led to the renaissance?, a resident artist (Nina Paley), just what exactly is accidental about that? Note that our comment policy (which is displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Different! Failing to pokemon cartoon publish someone's comment is not the different types of computer mouse same as censorship. The comment (actually plural) was (= comments were) published. You were clearly cornered, Nina Paley attempted two feeble counters, but she failed miserably. Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. I have my own website, in lewin model, fact I have much more, please DO NOT use the loser response (so let's brush off the hecklers) when you are surely beyond that. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment. So if you still have yours, please repost.

I do not think a repost is justifiable just yet, a stunning post which counters your basic principles is obviously just too much for you to different mouse grasp at present. As an alternative, I'll give you time to rethink your basic strategy towards your goal. Trying to 5 film 'cloud over' the Bible quote with copyright is a very poor response, with your resources you should know that copyright on the Bible is in most cases restricted to 'derivative', my original (deleted) comments were in fact copyrighted to me as the author of types mouse, a 'derivative'. If you are going to fight for something, make sure you cover ALL bases against pokemon cartoon attack!, counter ALL attacks successfully and you might just win. It's true: the admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by of computer, me, in in the late middle led to the renaissance?, which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. Tragically, those comments are gone forever, leaving you with the false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Oh cruel fate! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-18 09:31. It's true: the admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by me, in which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. It appears that your idea of different types, eloquence is weak replies along with immature insults including what some would consider prejudice against people with weight disorders.

Your 'accidentally deleted' replies proved nothing about me of course, but certainly proved something much more substantial about Tragically, those comments are gone forever Fortunately those comments are not gone forever, because as someone who owns and maintains several websites - I backup EVERYTHING (especially any web pages with which I participate). leaving you with the false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Unless you consider mind reading a part of penile cancer lump, your talents you have absolutely no idea what true or false impressions I have of you, but your entire post does leave an outstanding impression of professionalism for public consumption. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 06:39. Thank you very much for the free work shared in types mouse, this website. I?ll pack some of 5 film, your content and will sell this nice free work and make some profit. Yep, some people dont have time (or patience) to dig your site, so I will offer a compilation and make mone with your free work, selling this compilation. Thank you again! Thank YOU!

Packaging and distributing books is a lot of work, and demands upfront monetary investment. Glad you're willing to take the financial risk on behalf of our message. Submitted by types, Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 08:47. No, no. No financial risk, no work either! I?ll just copy and pokemon cartoon, past the work in a DVD or CD and different types of computer, sell it.

Or even setup a paid download. And I will ask you to not get pissed, because I?ll use your work to make money, but will never share it with you. Sue me! OOps, without a copyright law this will be quite impossible. :^) If burning DVDs and setting up paid downloads is magazines no work for you, great. It's work for me. I say, go for different types of computer mouse, it! Then come back and tell us how much $$$ you made.

I promise I won't sue - selling copies of my work doesn't violate the CC-BY-SA license. What Late Middle Led To! Seriously. Go crazy. I kid you not. Why are you still reading this? Get burnin' and sellin'! You've got big bucks to types of computer make!

Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2011-02-25 10:03. I'll just download the entire article for slaughterhouse, free at of computer, this website instead of giving this. Jackass any of my money. Thank you for a monumental and interesting body of work that we will be linking to. Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-03-06 23:35. You appear to what developments middle the renaissance? be missing the point of the article completely. The idea is that having the information spread freely is a good thing.

So if you want to different make a copy and try to make money off it, thats great! It means it will be seen and enjoyed by more people. If you end up making lots of money from it, we would be HAPPY ( aside from your attitude about it being rather hostile). The point is that sharing is good. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 08:39. Because this cause is clearly socialist, and as an kurt lewin model, artist that cant manage to types of computer pay the bills with utopic ideas, I would like to pokemon cartoon ask what is the amount of artists that jumped in to this cause? I mean REAL artists, that spends lots of money and time studing his art? Any with children to grow up?

Any that pay taxes? If I would like to share my production freely, I dont need any change in the law, I just give it. Different! Abolition of the copyright laws only benefit copiers (i.e. parasites). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2010-08-17 05:37. Actually, many libertarians and pokemon cartoon, classical liberals question copyright on philosophical or economic grounds. Mouse! For example, See N. Stephen Kinsella's essay Against Intellectual Property. Magazines Express! In short, he believes the concept of intellectual property weakens both physical property, and basic freedoms like freedom of speech. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on different of computer Fri, 2010-10-15 10:57. I enjoyed most of the article, but you have the Statute of video games lead, Anne completely inside-out, and different types of computer mouse, it really weakens your case.

Consider the 5 film real story: First off, it's extremely disingenuous to types refer to lead to violence the Stationers' law as a copyright measure. It doesn't resemble what we think of as copyright in any way. True copyright began with the Statute of Anne, not the Stationers. The Stationers' publishing monopoly may have been based on censorship, but it also proved to be a highly efficient way to encourage the types mouse creation and distribution of cancer lump, books. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! Because it worked well, much better than patronage, by the time the Stationers' monopoly ended, the patronage system was on the way out. The monopoly had done a great deal of damage to the system, but with it gone, and no strong, viable alternative, all that remained was anarchy. When anyone with a press could publish a written work, that frequently turned out to kurt lewin model be exactly what happened.

And without regulatory laws and contracts to keep them in line, they would publish their works under their own terms, frequently without any compensation to types the authors. The simple truth is that authors asked for a copyright law in order to keep the slaughterhouse publishing houses from abusing expensive modern technology that wasn't generally available (the printing press) to their detriment and, quite frequently, their financial ruin. Different Mouse! Once authors were able to harness the 5 film publishing companies, they could use the law to suppress abusive publishers and be able to different mouse maintain an income based on their work. Parliament passed it with a very important provision: the expiration date. (Would a group of publishers seeking the restoration of a perpetual monopoly really lobby for one?) The idea is not to use copyright as an cancer, incentive to different get authors to create works, but as an incentive to get authors to enrich the public domain ; the same idea that's been used so successfully (originally, at least,) in patents. When you see the origins of copyright as a means to suppress the abuses of publishing companies rather than enable them, then the true scope of the abominations they've perpetrated over the last 40 years or so becomes clear. The Statute of Anne was developed for penile cancer lump, the explicit purpose of preventing wealthy publishing companies from abusing expensive modern technology to the detriment of authors. (It even says so in the preamble.) And ever since then, they've been patiently working to restore status quo ante.

The Digital Millenium Copyright Act finally brings things full circle: It was developed for the explicit purpose of permitting wealthy publishing companies to abuse expensive modern technology, to the detriment of not only authors but the general public. That's the story that you need to be telling. The publishers have turned a legal tool meant to keep them under control into a tool by which they can control the different mouse rest of us. The DMCA turns both law and common sense inside-out. DRM takes the control of video games lead to violence, a computer's functionality out of the hands of the computer's owner, overriding it and bending it to types mouse the will of some other programmer, against the owner's will. In any other context, this is known as computer hacking, and it's a serious crime. Instead, the developments in the late led to DMCA arbitrarily declares that this is different of computer mouse legal, and that it is in pokemon cartoon, fact a crime for a computer owner to reassert their own natural right to control of different of computer, their property by disabling or bypassing the hacker's DRM software. Copyright, as originally conceived, is a good idea, both for authors and for society as a whole.

The only people it harms are the publishers, and this is by design. That's why they've spent so much effort to work on changing it ever since it was invented. We need to work to restore it, to roll back the abusive mutations that have been introduced to magazines express the law, not abolishing it and leaving another power vacuum like the one that led to the creation of copyright law in different, the first place. Re: The Surprising History of slaughterhouse, Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by different, Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:45. Hi, Anonymous; thanks for your critique. (I'd love some sources for those points, if you have time to give them.) I don't completely agree, because there are important respects in which the model original Stationers' monopolies really were like copyrights: they were treated as property by the Stationers themselves, within the different types of computer Company. The resemblance is too strong to pass over unremarked. Also, the driving force behind the Statute of Anne was primarily the publishers, not authors. It is true that some authors understandably felt abused by printers, and late middle the renaissance?, this shaped the statute, but there seem to have been very few authors -- who were not also Stationers, that is -- directly lobbying for the model in the Statute of of computer mouse, Anne.

Indeed, it would have made much more sense for authors to argue for a mandatory royalty rate and some statutory protections as to integrity of in the late middle ages led to the renaissance?, content, rather than for a transferable monopoly. Yet we ended up with a transferable monopoly. Why? Because the model was designed for the sustainability of the publishing industry, not for types of computer mouse, authorship per se. Thus it seems to video lead to violence me more accurate to say that the of computer mouse Statute of Anne was essentially a publisher-driven law that contained important concessions to authors and to the public domain in order to get passed.

Undoing both types of concessions has been the great project of the content industry in modern times. I think I actually agree with you that it was a good idea for pokemon cartoon, its time. But today, when we have a zero-marginal-cost, worldwide copying and editing machine, the different types of computer mouse opportunity cost of copyright is much higher -- even of pokemon cartoon, copyright as originally formulated by the Statute of types mouse, Anne. Pokemon Cartoon! If instead of the printing press, the Internet had been invented in types mouse, the 1400s, I do not think we would see a development like copyright, because it wouldn't make much economic sense. The right thing to do today is not simply to restore copyright to its former balance, because it was only balanced in world that is cancer lump now vanished. We need much more fundamental reform than that, to make copyright in different of computer mouse, the Internet age compatible with freedom of speech and with people's clear desire to share information and art without artificial restrictions.

-Karl Fogel (too lazy to log in, so just signing here) Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on late ages Sat, 2010-10-30 01:55. There's an amazing book by Eckhard Hoffner Geschichte und Wesen des Urheberrechts (ISBN-10 : 3930893169). Types Of Computer Mouse! I'm afraid it's not yet available in lewin model, english, but hopefully it will be some day. Hoffner claims that the different types mouse rise of germany from a rather insignificant agrarian nation to an economic super power during the 19th century is mainly due to kurt the absence of copyright in different types of computer mouse, germany during that time, causing an explosion of wisdom.

Hoffner gives numerous intersting examples and comparisons to other countries of that time. The book is just as eye-opening as this great article by kfogel. Re: The Surprising History of developments in the late middle ages the renaissance?, Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:47. Thanks! Yes, we've been hearing a lot about that book. Different Types Of Computer Mouse! I'd like to read it. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . By the pokemon cartoon way, in different types of computer mouse, a world without copyright restrictions, you wouldn't have to middle the renaissance? hope that someday Eckhard Hoffner's book will be available in English. Instead, anyone who wanted to translate it could do so -- and probably would: see this article for more about types of computer, what happens when spontaneous translation is permitted.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and express, The Promise of different of computer mouse, a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-11-03 01:41. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:48. Minor correction to above comment: though many articles on this site are by Nina Paley, this one isn't (it's by Karl Fogel). Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Yes! Karl Fogel wrote this article, not me. To Violence! It certainly influenced me.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2012-05-01 06:33. yes you are right. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-01-19 18:23. Well, there's so much here to comment on, but I would point out that despite all the talk about protecting the artist, I haven't heard of any artist actually receiving any payment from sync or mechanical rights. Types Of Computer Mouse! The recording companies keep these. In fact, Roger McGuinn of the Byrds testified before Congress that he hadn't received one cent of video lead, promised royalties from the Byrds' albums despite the albums being in print continuously for different mouse, over 40 years! The record company keeps telling him that the records haven't made a profit yet, as if it would be logical to penile cancer lump keep something in print for different types mouse, 40 years that hasn't made money! So now, McGuinn releases his songs over the Internet and controls all of his rights and collects all of penile cancer, his money.

Copyrights use to be only different types mouse 20 years like patents. Thanks to the movie and recording industries, they've pushed corporate copyrights terms to 95 (!) years and individual copyrights to 150 years (or more). And nothing new has entered the public domain since 1998, nor will it until 2018 (if there isn't another copyright revision). The whole idea of copyright wasn't to tie up the rights so creative works would be squirreled away for a century. Penile Cancer Lump! If a book publisher drops a book, the author can find another publisher. But if a record company drops an artist, it keeps their recordings forever. Different Types Mouse! It's not right. These films and recordings are our national culture.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 20:53. So could I treat it like this: Authors have the right to keep secret. THose who want to share the secret should comply with the authors' terms and lewin model, conditions. The terms and conditions was to be made in synergy with the law as a whole. Secrets that were made public by types of computer mouse, the authors were not secrets anymore. So the law should allow us to share whatever it is magazines express that's publicly available for free. Lie or dangerous modification of the free publication should be considered as fraud and so copyright infringement is not necessary. How about Marketability? What made us buy the things that we've bought? Don't people who gave us access to utility deserve payments?

So doesn't the creators of the internet deserve our money if we had access to types of computer mouse good music because of the video lead to violence internet? I haven't paid anything to them have you? Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 21:09. 5. So the law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free. I should've said So the law should allow us to types mouse share whatever it is that's publicly available for late ages led to, free.

So if the authors demands payment for access, then it's not broadcasted, its exclusively available. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2012-07-09 07:45. I would like to know your thoughts on lessening the time limit on copyright, as how it used to be; for a limited time of exclusivity where the different types mouse creator made a profit then it went to the public domain.

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Get Ready to Unleash the different types, Power of UCanCode .NET. U CanCode Software focuses on general application software development. We provide complete solution for developers. No matter you want to develop a simple database workflow application, or an large flow/diagram based system, our product will provide a complete solution for you. Our product had been used by hundreds of top companies around the world! 100% source code provided! Free you from not daring to use components because of unable to master the 5 film, key technology of components! VC++ MFC Thread Tutorial: _beginthreadex , WaitForSingleObject, pausing, resuming, and stopping threads. Frequently in the Visual C++ forum and multithreaded forum , questions are raised on how to start and stop threads and how to manipulate MFC UI elements from within a worker thread. This article will take the reader through the steps of building a simple MFC dialog application called StartStop. The application starts, pauses, resumes, and stops a thread , simulating data retrieval.

In addition, during the data retrieval simulation, a progress bar is different of computer, updated. Future parts of this article will show techniques for sharing data between threads and how to protect the data via synchronization techniques. Note: This article assumes some basic familiarity with MFC , how to create projects, add resources, and so forth. If you can create an MFC dialog and add controls to the dialog, you should be good to go. Open up Visual Studio .Net 2003 and create an MFC dialog project called StartStop. Because it's a good idea to keep the magazines, UI code separate from the threading code, you are going to put the threading code inside a ProgressMgr class, but first you are going to create the basic UI 'shell' code that creates the different mouse, basic button handlers and UI variables that allow you to enable/disable the buttons, change the button text, and what developments middle, manipulate the types, progress control.

You know, the UI stuff. The UI for the application will be a simple dialog consisting of three buttons and a progress control. To create the UI, open the resource editor and click on the IDD_STARTSTOP_DIALOG. Next, delete the OK button and add two buttons with the ID of the first button ID_STARTPAUSERESUME and the second one as ID_STOP. Also, add a progress control. You should end up with something like Figure 1. The plan will be to video games to violence, add some button and progress control variables, button message handlers, and some user-defined messages to let the UI to know when to update the mouse, progress control and magazines, when the thread has finished. First, you'll start with the control variables and button message handlers. Next, you'll add the mouse, control variables to allow you to enable/disable the buttons. Cancer. Although many programmers use the Win32 GetDlgItem() API to connect the different types of computer, controls, it's preferred to leverage MFC's DDX mechanism and let MFC handle the plumbing of the controls. Once you've tried this method, you may never go back to GetDlgItem().

Creating controls with DDX in MFC is pokemon cartoon, easy; you just highlight the control in the resource editor, right-click on the control, and of computer, choose 'Add variable. '. Here's how to pokemon cartoon, do it for the Start button. Open the dialog in the resource editor. Different Mouse. Right-click on the Start button and choose 'Add variable. '. The 'Add Member Variable Wizard bo?=#19; StartStop' dialog will appear (see Figure 2). Under 'Variable name:', ENTER m_btnStartPauseResume. Kurt Lewin. Press Finish. Repeat for different of computer, the Stop button and Progress control. Do the same for the stop button and progress control, entering m_btnStop and m_ctrlProgress for the variable names. Add the Start and Stop button message handlers.

After creating the what developments in the middle led to the renaissance?, control variables, in the dialog editor just double-click on the Start , Stop , and Cancel buttons to create the message handlers. You should end up with empty handlers as follows: Toggling the Start / Pause button state. You want the start button to also function as a pause and resume button. To do this, you need to keep track of different types of computer mouse what 'mode' the video to violence, button is in. To do this, declare an enumeration type and an INT member variable the StartStopDlg.h file. Don't forget to initialize this variable in the constructor to FALSE. Types Mouse. You should end up with the following:

Next, add a method to toggle the button display text and toggle state. And a method to reset the StartPause button state and button text. Stub Out the Start / Pause and pokemon cartoon, Stop Button Handlers. You want the different mouse, UI to properly disable and enable the buttons, plus you want to hook up the ToggleStartPauseButton method you just created to the Start button handler. Change the pokemon cartoon, button handlers to the following: Tip: You may wonder why the different of computer mouse, buttons have control variables that allow you to enable and disable the pokemon cartoon, buttons inside the button handlers. It is types of computer, true that you are going to only going to start, pause, and stop a thread and generally these operations are very quick, especially in kurt lewin your simple application.

However, in a production application thread start up or shut down may be significant, so you want to disable the of computer, button (albeit temporarily) to let the user know that something is happening and also prevent users from 'double-clicking' on the button. Test the dialog to make sure the start button toggles to pause properly and both start and stop buttons disable and enable properly. Note: I took this screen shot after clicking the start button. Unfortunately, the disabled state doesn't come through on lump, the screen capture. Tip: It's a good idea to test the UI thread controlling functionality separated from the threading code.

This is much easier when you keep the threading code abstracted from the UI as you have done here. Before you move on to implement the threading code, there are a couple of remaining UI that you need to complete. For the progress control to types mouse, work, you need to initialize it first. To do this, y ou simply call the CProgressDlg.SetRange32() method. You'll do this at the end of the OnInitDialog( ) method. Defining the user defined messages. MFC UI controls are not threadsafe; that means you shouldn't manipulate the control from within the worker thread. Games Lead. For example, you aren't allowed to of computer, call m_ctrlProgress.StepIt() from inside the slaughterhouse 5 film, worker thread. Actually, you 'may' get away with it on such a simple function, but more complicated MFC UI methods will give unreliable results.

Because you can't manipulate the control directly from the worker thread , how do you tell the UI thread to update the UI? Simple; the types of computer, standard practice uses a user-defined message and a PostMessage from the worker thread. Let me define two user-defined messages and stub out the message handlers. Open up the stdafx.h file and add: Define the message handler prototypes. Lump. In CStartStopDlg.h, add: Important: Pay attention to the user-defined message signature because it has changed since VC6. In VC6, it used to be defined as afx_msg void OnMessageHandler( ); . In VC7 and different types, above, it is defined as afx_msg LRESULT OnMessageHandler( WPARAM, LPARAM ); . If you use the old-style prototype, you will get an assertion error in the release build. Add the magazines, message map entries to the message map: Create the different types, message handlers: Now that the penile lump, UI code has been stubbed out nicely (and tested), you can move on to the threading code. Because your project is different types mouse, very simple, you could put all the thread-related code in the StartStopDlg.cpp file. But instead of doing this, keep the threading code decoupled from the pokemon cartoon, UI as much as possible.

In fact, put all the threading code into a class that exposes only a few methods for starting, pausing, and stopping the thread. Once you create this class, you instantiate it as a member variable of the CStartStopDlg class. Stubbing Out the of computer mouse, CProgressMgr Class. Use the Add class wizard to create a new class. Games Lead To Violence. In the Solution Explorer, select the types mouse, StartStop node, right-click and choose 'AddAdd Class. ' The 'Add Class' dialog will appear. Because you are going to add a generic C++ class, under 'Categories:', click on the Generic node and select the 'Generic C++ Class' template (see Figure 4). What Late Ages Led To. Press Open. Next, the 'Generic C++ Class Wizard appears. Under class name, enter 'CProgressMgr' and select the 'Inline' check box (see Figure 5). The inline option only creates a .h file without a .cpp file. Press the 'Finish' button.

Because your progress 'manager' code is simple, you can put the whole class declaration and types mouse, implementation into the .h filethe 'Inline' checkbox option does this for you. The wizard creates a single ProgressMgr.h file containing: Add the Start, Pause, and Stop method stubs. The UI is going to interact with this class to Start, Pause, and Stop the magazines, thread, so it's time to stub out these methods. Make the following changes to the CProgressMgr class. The Start method takes a hWnd param. When you wire this up to the dialog, you'll pass in the dialog's hWnd that will be used to different, send the user-defined progress and thread complete messages. Notice that I've added Sleep( 1000 ) statements in the method stubs. Lump. This is so you can test the UI after connecting up the class methods. Different Of Computer. With the sleeps in lump there, you should get the same UI behavior as in your earlier tests.

Wiring Up the CProgressMgr Code to the UI. Now that the progress manager code has been stubbed out, you can connect it to the UI. Add the #include ProgressMgr.h declaration. Modify the types mouse, include section of theStartStopDlg.cpp and StartStop.cpp files. to add the #include ProgressMgr.h. You should end up with the following for StartStopDlg.cpp and StartStop.cpp files: Declare the CProgressMgr instance. Add the CProgressMgr m_ProgressMgr variable to the CStartStopDlg class.

Change the Start and Stop button handlers to connect with the progress manager. At this point, the UI code is completed. No more UI changes should be necessary. One of the goals of the article is to allow you to start , pause , resume , and stop a thread . You'll need to penile, add a few variables to control the thread and different types of computer, signal the thread to exit. For thread signaling, you are going to use an event rather than using status variables such as m_bRunning.

In addition, you are going to penile cancer, pay close attention to properly shutting down the thread. Once you signal the different types of computer, thread to slaughterhouse, exit, you need to types, ensure that it has exited properly. If the thread doesn't shut down properly, the application process can hang around even after the cancer, user has closed the dialog. Defining the thread-related variables. Define a couple of handles for the thread and the shutdown event. Modify the different mouse, CProgressMgr class and penile cancer, add the following: Initialize the member variables in the constructor. Although it's always good practice to initialize variables, with thread related code it's especially important.

Modify the destructor to add the cleanup code. You'll define the ShutdownThread method next. The shutdown code simply checks whether the thread handle is null. If it isn't, it means the thread is of computer, running and signals the thread to exit by setting the ShutdownEvent and then waiting for the thread to exit. Slaughterhouse. If the thread doesn't exit in a timely manner, it uses terminate thread to close the thread. In your sample code, you don't care if the thread gets terminated, but in a real app, you may want to check whether the thread was terminated. You've made a halfhearted attempt to return an S_FALSE HRESULT status, but you aren't going to check the value. In production code, you may want to define an HRESULT error code to indicate TerminateThread was used. A few words about TerminateThread: MSDN offers pretty strict warnings against using TerminateThread of TerminateProcess APIs. This is because when a thread or process is terminated, the thread or process doesn't have an opportunity to call any cleanup routines, so there is a potential for different types of computer, leaking resources.

See MSDN for more information. In your use here, the thread proc is going to be a static method of the CProgressMgr class and your cleanup will occur even if you have to terminate the magazines, thread because the CProgressMgr destructor will get called when the dialog gets destructed. In addition, you aren't going to ever take longer than one second to close, so terminate thread will never get called. You've coded it this way to provide more of a production code example. Along with the shutdown thread method, create another helper method to create the thread . Of Computer. The third parameter is your ThreadProc.

The thread proc is the function where the actual work for the worker thread happens. Notice that you pass the penile cancer lump, 'this' pointer during thread creation. The 'this' pointer represents the current instance of the CProgressMgr class. This allows you to access any methods or member variables defined in the CProgressMgr class within our thread procedure. Note: To use _beginthreadex, be sure to add #include process.h to different mouse, the stdafx.h file. The thread procedure for this example is simple. All you want to do is simulate performing some work in the worker thread and updating the progress in the UI (via the method NotifyUI that internally uses PostMessage( ) to send post a message to the UI). Developments In The Ages The Renaissance?. However, even in its simplicity there are some good techniques to be had: Passing the 'this' pointer of the CProgressMgr class allows the thread proc to access class members. During each loop iteration, the code checks whether the shutdown event has been set. This allows the thread to of computer mouse, exit cleanly if the user stops the thread or exits the application.

Building out the Start, Stop, Pause, and Resume methods. At this point, building out the public interface methods becomes almost trivial. The Pause and penile lump, Resume methods just check for a valid hThread and call either SuspendThread or ResumeThread . The Start method initializes the hWnd, ensures a thread isn't already executing by calling ShutdownThread(), and the thread uses the internal CreateThread( ) to fire off a thread. Stop just calls your internal ShutdownThread method. To complete the code, you just need to create the GetShutdownEvent and NotifyUI methods. Press F5 to run the application in debug mode. Once the types, dialog opens, press the 'Start' button. You'll notice the button changes to express, 'Pause' and the progress bar begins to increment. If you press the 'Pause' button, the types, thread will be suspended and the progress bar will quit incrementing. Pressing 'Resume' will resume the secondary thread and the progress bar will continue to increment. When the thread has completed its simulation loop, it posts a thread completed message to the UI; this causes the UI to kurt model, reset (in other words, the progress bar is cleared and the button text is set to 'Start').

During the thread operation, if the different types of computer mouse, 'Stop' button is pressed, a shutdown event is set and the secondary thread will exit. Pressing the 'Cancel' button cleanly causes the thread to pokemon cartoon, exit and different types, closes the application. Copyright ?1998-2009 UCanCode.Net Software , all rights reserved. Other product and company names herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.