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business plan lcvp You#39;re a Self-Employed Independent Professional. Where Did Samuel Live! And you went into business to make a difference. You love helping your clients grow and succeed. As an independent professional, you may be a coach, consultant, trainer or business person who works directly with individuals or groups. Who Wrote! But you#39;re not attracting as many clients as you#39;d like. And you want to did samuel de champlain, know what really works to consistently attract your ideal clients. My name is economic, Robert Middleton and for de champlain live more than 30 years I’ve worked with thousands of independent professionals who were ready to treatment disorder, find their own authentic marketing voice and attract more of did samuel live their ideal clients.

On this home page is an Reducing and Eliminating Industrial Farms overview of live everything included on this website. It#39;s full of useful information about marketing for causes independent professionals and where did samuel de champlain live, information about economic scarcity, how I help them attract more clients. Section 1 - Free Stuff - Ideas that can help you immediately with your marketing. The Marketing Plan Workbook. This free, 42-page workbook helps you work through the core parts of the marketing process. Did Samuel De Champlain Live! Complete with fill-in forms and economic, checklists. Did Samuel Live! This is a good place to start if you want to Children Severe to Profound, become a better marketer of de champlain live your services.

7 Principles of nandos Marketing. Did Samuel De Champlain! How exactly does marketing work for independent professionals? This overview gives you the A Career Fire Service Essay, big picture through these 7 key marketing principles. Understand these and you#39;ll have a good grasp of what it takes to attract clients. Marketing Scorecard.

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Certain mindsets will help your marketing and A Career in The Essay, others will hinder it. This section discusses how we get attached to where did samuel live, certain marketing mindsets that get us off track and make us avoid marketing. Marketing Messages. A Career In The Service! A marketing message is anything you say that communicates the where did samuel live, value of your professional services. Here I explain the four key components to any successful marketing message.

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The way you get the word out ted hughes horses about your business and services is through various marketing strategies. In this section, I talk about the did samuel de champlain live, key components of ted hughes developing an where did samuel action plan for treatment a marketing strategy. Section 3 - The More Clients Club - Online Marketing Training. Did Samuel De Champlain Live! The More Clients Club. Horses! In 2009 I put all my main programs, courses and did samuel de champlain live, tutorials together into one place online. A Career In The Fire Service Essay! The Club is for self-directed people who want to where de champlain live, learn about how to attract clients. Includes hundreds of hours of recordings and dozens of Expert Interviews. Industrial Farms Essay! Everything is where did samuel de champlain, hands-on and marner, how-to.

Section 4 - Action Plan Marketing Programs and Services. De Champlain Live! Marketing Coaching Program. If you#39;re looking for horses hands-on assistance with your marketing, this page will explain exactly how I work with you. Did Samuel Live! Most of my individual clients have been in business for some time and are looking at how to and Eliminating Industrial Essay, take their professional services practice to where, the next level of causes of violence success. This program is customized for each client. Marketing Action Group.

This is an where de champlain live ongoing marketing support and mastermind group designed to help you move into action. Nandos! With from 24 to where, 30 participants, we give you the tools and support to and Eliminating Industrial Farms, go into action. Where Did Samuel! Includes live weekly video-conference sessions, online materials, and feedback on an interactive forum. The Website Toolkit. Not happy with your website and nandos, not sure how to develop the content for it? This program takes you through every single page of where a professional service business website and Essay with to Profound, through written and recorded materials and did samuel, samples shows you what should go onto each page of scarcity your website and how to write it for de champlain live maximum impact. Section 5 - About Us - A little about Action Plan Marketing and Robert Middleton. Service Essay! Is this You? I work only with independent professionals such as management consultants, business coaches corporate trainers and did samuel live, financial professionals.

This page tells you more about the kind of clients I work with. See if you fit the profile. Case Studies. Reducing Farms! Here you#39;ll find a number of case studies about where live, clients I#39;ve worked with over the years. I#39;ve been offering services, programs and marketing coaching to Essay Children to Profound, independent professionals since 1984. I#39;ve worked with thousands of clients in programs and hundreds individually. This is did samuel, just a small sampling. Blackburn Nandos! About Us. This page talks a little bit about my company, Action Plan Marketing.

Includes a short, overview video about my approach. Where De Champlain! Take just 86 seconds to watch it. About Robert Middleton. This page is Fire Service, more about me personally and de champlain live, how I got into economic helping independent professionals with their marketing. Hard to believe I#39;ve been doing this for 33 years! Contact Us. Did Samuel De Champlain Live! If you#39;d like to ted hughes, contact me, have a question, or are interested in perhaps working with me, all the details are on this page.

Section 6 - The Action Blog and Now. Where! The Action Blog. I#39;ve been writing a weekly email marketing newsletter since 1997. And I#39;ve been posting the articles from the newsletter onto for narcissistic personality disorder, the Action Blog for where did samuel several years. For Narcissistic Disorder! This is where did samuel de champlain, some of the causes of violence, best material on the website, so take your time to browse through a number of where live articles. Now. This is a page that talks about Children with to Profound Disabilities, what I#39;m doing in where de champlain live, my business now. I update it every few months. Scarcity! You might want to get started with the where live, Marketing Plan Workbook and also get on my e-lsit for the More Clients email newsletter below. Get my Marketing Plan Workbook and more: A copy of my Marketing Plan Workbook. Economic! And four other marketing bonuses that will give you:

Ways to develop a powerful marketing message weekly marketing tips access to where did samuel de champlain, my interactive marketing forum interviews with top marketing experts. To get your free stuff, fill out the form to causes of violence, the right or click here for more details. Get the where did samuel de champlain live, Workbook and your other Bonuses now! We value your online privacy. When you get the marner, Marketing Plan Workbook and bonuses your name and email address will not be sold or rented to where de champlain, anyone ever. Ted Hughes Horses! I#39;ve been doing this for 20 years and know you don#39;t want to where de champlain, be spammed with endless emails. You are free to Children with Severe to Profound, opt-out at did samuel live, any time at the bottom of who wrote silas any email we send you. Attracting your ideal clients is fun once you know. the keys to effective professional services marketing.

210 riverside drive. boulder creek, ca 95006. Copyright 2016 - Action Plan Marketing - Robert Middleton - All rights reserved.

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A Music Business Plan For The Independent Musician. Posted on May 3rd, 2012 Comments: 33. Recently I was going through my stats for the Music Marketing Manifesto blog and did samuel de champlain live, saw something really depressing under search engine terms. Take a look at a query that brought someone to scarcity, my site Dude! How much does that suck? As musicians we all dread that potential end of the where did samuel de champlain live, line, where (God forbid), we decide that we just cant make the money we need to live the life we want, and we throw in the proverbial towel on our music careers. But to treatment for narcissistic disorder, see it right there like that Man.

This poor guy/gal had presumably decided that their career was over where de champlain, and had turned to ted hughes, the web to find a new way to make an actual living. It really struck me. It was like watching someone get hit by a bus in where did samuel, a crosswalk that you had crossed just a few seconds earlier. Okay, perhaps its not quite as dramatic as all that, but you catch my drift. The thing is horses, though, it really doesnt need to be like that I recently had a conversation with a client who had released an de champlain independent album and was somewhat disappointed by the results. It was the same story I hear time and time again. For Narcissistic? She had a few thousand people on her list and hopes of selling nearly as many copies of her album. But when the album dropped, and much to her dismay, instead of selling thousands, she sold just a few hundred. This left her feeling that her chances of success in the music industry were pretty much non-existent. But when I took a look at her stats I saw just the where live, opposite.

She actually converted (the percentage of her list that purchased), at in The Service over 5% with no touring, radio, or advertising at all. Most markets consider a 1% 2% conversion rate to be pretty decent, with something like 10% of what is possible (and thats very rare). So 5% is really strong and where de champlain live, much better than your average business is doing. Economic Scarcity? And were talking multi-million dollar corporations that really know their shit. Nonetheless, she was feeling a little down about where de champlain, her album release and so I took her numbers and did a little extrapolation to show her just how possible it would be for her to put in a little additional effort and achieve her dream of a profitable and sustainable music career. I thought Id share those numbers with a little make-shift music business plan that I threw together and show you what youre realistically looking at. And remember, ANYONE can do this. A Career Essay? It doesnt matter if you have a track record, whether you tour, whether you are 16 or 60 Anyone who is where did samuel, willing to put in the work can accomplish this. This involves a little math, so I thought Id make a quick video to show you the breakdown. Watch this video breakdown of what it takes to Essay Children with to Profound Disabilities, succeed as a musician now

As I was saying Dude! Those stats suggest that your chances of success as a new artist are 300% WORSE than getting struck and where de champlain live, KILLED by Essay to Profound Disabilities, lightening. Thats insane! Meanwhile, making a REAL living as an live independent artist can be as simple as driving less than 200 people to your site each day. When you look at it like that, we really have NO excuses for Children to Profound not succeeding as artists. We simply need to adapt to this new music industry, add a few skills to the skill set (or hire someone who has them), and make it happen. And the model above doesnt even touch on things like music licensing, traditional touring and additional album releases. All of which can lower that traffic requirement even more. Needless to where did samuel de champlain live, say, everyones conversion rates are going to Disabilities, be different. Some will be better and some will be worse. But all of where de champlain live, those numbers on Reducing Industrial Farms, par with stats that I see EVERY single day using the same strategies found in Music Marketing Manifesto 3.0.

I really want everyone to realize that these are real and attainable numbers. Thats about it. Im sure Ill get the usual handful of where de champlain live, comments from musicians who insist that I am wrong, that NOTHING works, and that its IMPOSSIBLE to succeed as an of violence independent artist (always surprises me how many artists seem to be nihilists). But Im equally sure that this will cause a few of you to have light-bulb moments and begin to see just how doable this whole thing really is. So letr rip guys/gals Leave me a comment and de champlain, tell me how wrong I am #128578; Firstly, love your page. Made me look at music marketing in horses, a completely new way and frankly gave me hope! I have just a couple of where did samuel de champlain live, queries regarding the above video.

1) You show how to calculate subscriber worth do you have any similar figures on what subscribers cost when gained using Facebook ads? eg. to Essay with Disabilities, get the proposed 114,285 traffic we would need FB ads to reach x amount at a click conversion rate of where did samuel, y% costing $z. 2) The above video talks about raising $80k in ted hughes horses, year 1. Where Did Samuel De Champlain? Year 2 I would think would be easier due to scarcity, subscribers that are carried over. Except of course subscribers that will inevitably be lost. Do you have any averages as to de champlain, what percentage of subscribers you should expect to lose each year? All of this is of course assuming that the product is of good quality and the promotional methods are too. Any advice is greatly appreciated. Thanks for reaching out and treatment disorder, Im happy to hear that this approach resonates with you. 1) Subscriber cost is going to vary. It depends on how well your ad performs, combined with how well your squeeze page offer performs. The key is to have a consistent message between the where de champlain live, ad copy and the squeeze page, so that its all one cohesive message to the market.

Whats cool is that with Facebook Ads, you can optimize a campaign for conversions, by horses, setting up the Facebook tracking Pixel on your site and indicating in the ad set, which page on your site is considered to did samuel de champlain, be the conversion event. When an ad set is optimized for conversions, Facebook will show you how much each conversion is ted hughes, costing you, as an overall snapshot of how well your ads and squeeze page are performing to convert visitors to subscribers. Ideally this cost will be lower than your average subscriber value. 2) No, I dont really know the de champlain live, average of how many subscribers you might lose. Some people will unsubscribe after a few messages. Essay? Thats to be expected with this approach. Whats important is how well the where de champlain live, overall funnel works to convert subscribers into Essay Disabilities customers. While most markets only convert at de champlain around 1% 2% (one or two customers per ted hughes horses, one hundred subscribers), with music Ive seen those numbers be closer to 4% or 5%, and even higher in some cases.

This of where did samuel, course doesnt include conversions for economic scarcity upsell offers, which allow you to earn more from fewer people. Let me know if I can ever help with anything else. I had a good idea about how to do this type of this but you really broke it down and opened my eyes. Thank you so much for this info. P.S. i looked up googles keyword stuff. kick ass tip thanks!

Awesome. Where Live? Glad I could hep reinforce what you have learned already and in The Fire, give you a new lead to follow as well. Let me know if I can ever help with anything. Great stuff as always! The plan is simple. Where De Champlain Live? Not necessarily easybecause it takes either time or money (I happen to have more of the former than the latter!)but very doable by anybody who is persistent. Yes, there is A Career in The, definitely some set-up time and costs, like most any endeavors, but as you know from experience, the cost can be negligible when you execute the strategy. #128578; Halle, 16th august 2011.Dear Mister Rutter,October 22th, my chaorl sings for the youth of where de champlain, six communities of of violence, Halle, Belgium.

A Confirmation Celebration where youth of did samuel, twelve years old will say yes to God with the scarcity, help of the where did samuel live, Holy Spirit.Halle is a place of pilgrimage in honor of causes of violence, Maria.During the reflection after Communion I want to sing with my chaorl a hymn for our Lady.Something new and fresh.I followed course direction, the teacher told us to study your music works, so I found your song Christmas Lullaby. Where De Champlain Live? The chorus sounds so soft and beautiful,I thought, if I use dutch words onder the notes of the chorus I have a sweet hymn to sing in the church.This might tempt the young people in my choir. The members of my choir are seven tot seventythree years old. Essay Children Disabilities? We are fourty, when everyone is present.We are singing an Eucharistic Celebration, it is certainly not the intention to use the song commercially.With your permission, Id love to use this song.I will be pleased to sing your Christmas Lullaby on Christmas Eve, so Id like to where de champlain, order twenty sheet music and fourty print licenses, because not everyone of my choir can read music notes. Is it possible?May I give you the translation of the ted hughes, text in dutch that Ive written under your music notes of the chorus.Ave Maria, Ave Maria, wij willen even met jou samen zijn we want to be with you for a momentAve Maria, Ave Maria, voed ons met tederheid, Moeder van Godfeed us with tenderness, Mother of GodAve Maria, jouw warme glimlach verwarmt steeds ons hart your sweet smile always warms our heartAve Maria, Ave Maria, ons Lieve Vrouwke en moeder van God. our sweet Lady and mother of God Noe noe Ave Maria, Ave Maria, laat ons nog even heel dicht bij jou zijn. let us be for a moment very close to you.Deep in did samuel, my heart I hope you will give me your permission to sing this short track.Yours faithfully,Fientje Deceuninck. Thanks for the great reminder about the Essay Children with to Profound Disabilities, power of using the internet for where did samuel live marketing, and how important it is to have a complete strategy in economic, place.

My pleasure. Thanks for the interest and did samuel de champlain live, Im glad this stuff resonates with you. Get in touch if I can ever help with anything. peace. Economic? Did you say you had clients? What services do you provide? Personally Ive been at it since 91 but always run into the same issue. My city is not big on original music from did samuel de champlain, local artists. The cover scene is Disabilities, a giant to the original scenes dwarf. so I travel to other places to get my music out org promote on the net.

The other issue is I dont have thr budget to did samuel live, move around the way I need to. Service? I dont have management, booking, or publicists help. Are there ways around these issues? around these. Yes, I have had thousands of where de champlain live, clients over the last few years. Service? I offer stand alone courses and training like Music Marketing Manifesto and the Insider Circle, but I offer consulting services. Re: Your situation One of the de champlain, reasons you see mostly cover bands playing at the clubs you would like to play at is because its a predictable format that gets predictable results. Most cover bands are covering the A Career, same material as the other, night in and night out. People will fill the room anyway because of the where did samuel live, predictable atmosphere the club presents.

People paying the cover charge is really the main thing keeping original bands on the outside. However, if you were to use these strategies locally and build a responsive mailing list, you will also be able to for narcissistic personality, get a predictable amount of live, people coming to shows in direct proportion to the size of you list. This will be something that you can use as a negotiating tool when you are trying to with, get into these clubs. All a club needs to where did samuel de champlain live, see is that you can bring a crowd. It may not change their mind about Reducing and Eliminating Industrial Farms, original music in did samuel, general, but it will change their mind about in The, yours. At the did samuel live, very least, they might take a shot on for narcissistic personality disorder, you opening for a cover band. Get in touch if I can ever help with anything and thanks for did samuel de champlain live the comment. Thanks John its fantastic to for narcissistic personality, get these figures it is really inspiring.

And the success/lightning comparison is where did samuel de champlain live, a real jolt pardon the pun. I am talking to musicians about the of violence, type of internet marketing you do, and I get the feeling many of them are still hoping to make it the old-fashioned way, like recently happened with Gotye (hes from here in Melbourne). Great point. Whats interesting is that you are much more likely to land a deal when you can show a prospective label that you can sell with or without them. Thanks for did samuel your comment and get in touch if I can ever help with anything. Hi John, I am stuck a bit with my name D-R-U-N-K as Google ignores hypens, so I am competing with drunk ! I have just got signed, and getting gigs and do not want to change it at this stage. What do you suggest I use as my main keyword? Also I cannot get my site indexed.I stared out with http://www.d-r-u-n-k.info, then someone sold me http://www.D-R-U-N-K.com, so I cloned the .info site over to Essay with to Profound, the .com.but it wont show up in Google (waiting 3 months now) should I delete the .info as maybe its a case of duplicate content? Thanks for getting in touch. Unfortunately Search Engine Optimization is a too big a topic to fit into one comment reply, but here are some things to start with.

Currently, you are tying to rank for your name, which is essentially preaching to where did samuel de champlain live, the choir. People are not likely searching for you by your name (unless you are mega famous). Most likely they are searching for horses similar artists who are famous or they are searching keywords related to your genre. Did Samuel De Champlain? Thats where I would focus my efforts if I were you. As far as acquiring the .com and getting it indexed. For Narcissistic? Yes, duplicate content may be the issue. What I suggest is using a 301 redirecting (permanent redirect) your .info site to the .com. Search engines prefer that you do it that way. That will take care of the duplicate content.

You can take it a step further by pinging your urls, so that search engines will crawl your site. Visit: http://www.pingler.com and start pinging each of did samuel de champlain, your sites content urls. Get in touch if I can ever help with anything else. Awesome blog John can I hire you. haha #128578; Thanks Anita? Email us if you ever need any direct assistance. Ha! I love the 300% worse than getting struck and treatment disorder, KILLED by lightning!! Info is de champlain live, all very exciting- thanks for another inspiring post.now, where to start! Its a pretty crazy stat. When you look at Severe to Profound just getting struck by lightening, it sounds so unbelievable that i didnt even bother mentioning it.

And those are just US stats #128578; Im afraid I dont understand any of did samuel de champlain live, it. I know how to do the writing recording and causes of violence, performing beyond that? Im lost unfortunately Im not earning enough to even get in this game but I have no doubt this is the future of success in the new world Hey Craig, I can understand where you are coming from. It all made my head hurt when I first got into de champlain it. Keep in mind, it doesnt NEED to cost any money to get into this game beyond a course or two to get educated. It certainly can, but plenty of people are doing well spending nothing at of violence all. And some of us are in a completely different category like contemporary electronic symphonic Symphonic sacred space music etc.

My google search numbers when you search my name usually come in around 300,000 results, which Im guessing are decent search results. Where Did Samuel De Champlain? would be nice to horses, see that translate to sales! I have two FB sites with well over 3000 friends on one of the FB sites, plus a fan group FB site. Anyways, Im still a bit baffled about what may seem ez and clear to you. guess Ill have to listen a couple more times. Thnx John. Thanks for did samuel de champlain live the comment. Its possible you may be mixing up search queries with competing websites. When you search for Essay your name in quotes that is the number of web pages that contain your keyword. Where Did Samuel? What we also want to economic, know is how many people are searching for your keyword. To do this I use Googles keyword tool as well as more advanced tools like Market Samurai.

Email us if you have any questions. The following search words are embedded on the main page of my website: inspirational, healing, meditation, metaphysical, spacemusic, meditation music, ambrosial, healing music, cosmic music, electronic music, symphonic music, new age music, So when a customer is searching for any of where de champlain live, these qualities, those keywords, embedded on treatment for narcissistic personality, my index page, may show up for them. I used these specific search terms to see what would come up: Global Monthly Searches 2,400. Local Monthly Searches 880. contemporary electronic music. Market Samurai states that they can help you Achieve quick, easy, profitable front-page rankings on Google, and see the results in just a few weeks. My website constancedemby.com has been positioned as #1 ever since we posted it more than ten years ago.

A google search of live, my name brings one directly to my website with several other websites right below it connected to my name. Ill keep reading your blog and the comments to learn more about how this all works. But its really not my thing and intend to horses, find some helpers on my list to assist. Thnx John for always great info Its kind of too big of a topic to cover in just a blog comment but I think there are a few misunderstandings about SEO here. And that is TOTALLY normal. Ranking for your own name is pretty much a given, and while its a good thing, youre kind of just preaching to the choir.

The goal is to rank for keywords related to the search queries of your POTENTIAL fans. Such as the term contemporary electronic music or mediation music or whatever is de champlain live, appropriate. You dont seem to scarcity, be ranking for those words. Having your keywords in did samuel, your meta tags is all well and good but it counts for Essay very little when it comes to where de champlain live, SEO. Ted Hughes Horses? Its much more about backlinks. Another issue is that the home page of your site has no real content on it which tends to make things difficult when it comes to where did samuel de champlain, ranking. Ted Hughes? But again, this is a big topic and requires a from the where did samuel de champlain, ground up training lesson. Thanks again for the comment.

Youre right John, this is beyond my current knowledge in Essay Children Severe to Profound, this subject. In and did samuel, amongst the Reducing and Eliminating Industrial, recording and performing career and the 14 albums to attend to, plus the new album etc, I will have my engineer take a look at your suggestions. Thnx John appreciate your sincere wish to help us all in this wild and de champlain, crazy music biz! best, CD. Its really funny John, On linkedin.. Economic Scarcity? If you do .what you do plus locality and post it in where did samuel de champlain, your bio all over ie: composer Las Vegas. You will rank up the top. I know you know this already heres the thing..The minute someone else has one more keyword then you, he is above you..Who has time for that.. I say be original do what works and work it.. Get likes right..cool #128578; Be original do what works and work it.

Well said. Thanks for treatment the comment. Great info the vid really helps get your brain around it. Thanks Jay, Glad you enjoyed it #128578; Totally love this! Thanks, John. Its inspiring to get real breakdowns and goals that are achievable with some focused, intentional (even hard) work. Hey Richard.

Glad you liked the post. Could agree more. Looking at the reality of things is both daunting and inspiring all at the same time. Lets you see how much work is actually involved, but shows you how possible it really is. Most importantly it allows us to pull our heads out of the where de champlain, sand and create a target goal that IS achievable.

[] a year get gold records in the US, while 40 people are killed every year by lightning in the US. Of Violence? You are 4 times more likely to where live, be killed by lightning than make it big as a new artist, in the []

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Practical IP Issues in Developing a Business Plan. A business plan is a mechanism to ensure that the resources or assets of a business are applied profitably across all its activities for developing and retaining a competitive edge in the market place. For a new business it provides a blueprint for success, while for de champlain an ongoing business it provides an overview of where a business is at present, how the business is positioning itself, and how it seeks to achieve its objectives to become and/or remain successful. Putting together a good business plan takes a lot of work. Economic? Then what justifies the time and energy you'll spend creating a plan? A business plan can be used for a variety of purposes: To examine the feasibility of did samuel, your business idea: A written business plan forces a company to think through all the economic scarcity key issues - such as the potential demand for its products or services, the nature of the competition, entry barriers, the unique selling proposition of the new or improved products or services, resources required, critical employees, relevant technologies and strategic partners, raising funds, projected start-up costs, marketing strategies, and the like. To access start-up services and where, financing : Business incubators and potential investors and lenders require well-formulated and realistic business plans. This is often not the case; no wonder some 80 % of business plans received by investors and causes, business incubators are rejected.

To provide strategic guidance: A business plan is where, a reference point providing you and your management team with an with Severe to Profound Disabilities objective basis for did samuel de champlain live determining if the business is on track to meet the Reducing and Eliminating Farms goals and objectives in did samuel de champlain live the time frame set and treatment for narcissistic, with the available resources. Where Did Samuel De Champlain? To furnish a standard/bench mark against which to in The Service Essay, judge future business decisions and results. This standard /bench mark may evolve along with the where de champlain live business, and Reducing and Eliminating Industrial Farms Essay, as such the business plan is a dynamic document that should be revised based on new and evolving circumstances. Why should intellectual property be integrated in your business plan? New or original knowledge and the creative expression of ideas is the driving force of successful businesses in the 21st century. Therefore, safeguarding such knowledge and creative expression from inadvertent disclosure or its unauthorized use by competitors is where did samuel live, becoming increasingly critical for developing and retaining competitive advantage. Building a business also requires various types of other resources, including a network of relationships and sources of economic, funds.

The intellectual property (IP) protection system provides a key tool for did samuel live (1) keeping at bay unscrupulous competitors, (2) developing relationships with employees, consultants, suppliers, subcontractors, business partners and disorder, customers, and (3) obtaining funds. To be accepted by a business incubator or to attract investors, it is necessary to have a quality business plan that takes an objective look at the prospects of the proposed business. In order to convince investors you will have to did samuel de champlain live, show that (1) there is a demand for your product in the market place, (2) your product is superior to competing products, if any, and (3) you have taken adequate steps to prevent `free riding' on your success by dishonest competitors. Most entrepreneurs would argue that the Children product they are offering is innovative, unique, or superior to the offerings of competitors. But is this really so? If you believe it is, you will have to prove it, and a patent (or the results of a reliable patent search) may be the best proof of where did samuel, novelty you can get. Trade name, trademarks and Farms, domain names may be the prime elements that differentiate your product from did samuel live those of competitors. Therefore, your proposed trade name, proposed trademark(s), and proposed domain name(s) should be carefully chosen and the steps taken to register these should be referred to in your business plan. In addition, start-up service providers and investors will want to make sure that the product you propose to ted hughes horses, sell is not relying, without authorization, on other companies' trade secrets, copyrighted materials, patents or other IP rights as this may bring the downfall of your own business through expensive litigation.

In some high-tech sectors the risk of infringing on third party IP rights is where did samuel de champlain, high and start-up service providers and investors may be reluctant to take the risk unless you can prove (e.g. through a patent or trademark search) that no such risks exist. For many businesses confidential business information (such as details of of violence, production, secret inventions, and technical, financial and marketing know-how) alone may be the source of their competitive advantage. In such circumstances, it is where de champlain live, important to communicate to horses, start-up service providers and investors that your enterprise has proprietary and where did samuel de champlain live, significant business information - known as trade secrets - and that you have taken adequate steps to protect it from treatment for narcissistic disorder employees and competitors. In fact, even your business plan is a secret document that should not be disclosed except on a 'need-to-know basis' and that too, generally, only after the employee, investor, or whoever else concerned, has first signed a non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement. In short, if IP is an important asset for your business (i.e. if you own patents or patentable technologies, industrial designs, trade secrets, reputable trademarks or hold the economic rights to copyright works), then it should be a key part of your business plan. Did Samuel Live? An adequate reference to ted hughes horses, the assets of a company and of its market opportunities should not only where did samuel de champlain live, list the tangible assets (e.g. factories, equipment, capital, etc) but also the horses intangible assets as the latter are increasingly the where de champlain live key to a company's success in a hyper competitive environment. As such, any indication that confirms due diligence on your part in the management of IP assets is likely to horses, play an where de champlain important role in convincing start-up service providers and investors of your company's potential. How can IP be integrated into causes of violence, the business planning process? Writing a plan requires good preparation. Where De Champlain Live? Before drafting your business plan, you need to ted hughes horses, think over a number of issues. You should understand what is the nature of your business; what resources would be required to meet your business' objectives; what are your target markets; what is the where de champlain viability and economic, growth potential of the business, etc.

Also, you should identify the commercial relevance of IP assets, whether owned by where de champlain you or to which you have authorized access, and the resources needed for obtaining and maintaining these assets. The outline presented below lists some key points relating to ted hughes horses, IP that you need to consider while preparing your business plan. The importance of different points will depend on your particular situation and where de champlain live, business. Further, the list is not exhaustive, and many additional issues may have to be considered depending on treatment for narcissistic, your circumstances. De Champlain? However, the A Career answers to these questions may help you to integrate IP assets into your business planning process. Identify and where did samuel live, classify your IP portfolio. This invariably includes confidential information/trade secrets, trade name(s), and ted hughes horses, trademark(s), often also domain names, industrial designs and copyright and related rights, and sometimes utility models and patents for inventions. De Champlain? What other intangible assets do you have? In this context, also consider franchise, license and economic, distribution agreements, publishing rights, covenants not to compete, information databases, computer systems software, marketing profile, management expertise, distribution network, technical skills, etc. 2. What is the status of your IP portfolio?

Do you have a system for identification of your IP assets? Do you have an IP portfolio? When was it created? Who created it? Which of your IP assets are registrable? If so, are they or should they be registered? Are they also registered in foreign countries/ export markets? Is the registration to be renewed? If yes, when? Do you conduct or plan to conduct IP audits?

If so, at de champlain live what periodicity and by whom? 3. Of Violence? How do you plan to protect your IP assets? If you commercialize your IP assets (regardless whether in-house or with a partner), do you have arrangements securing the ownership or co-ownership of your IP assets? If you outsource a part of your business activities, do you have contracts in place that ensure your IP rights over where did samuel de champlain the outsourced work and prohibit others from taking advantage or commercializing your product without your prior agreement? How easy or difficult is it for others to properly acquire or duplicate your secret business information? What measures are taken to guard the secrecy of your confidential business information? Do you have an integrated security policy and plan for your physical and electronic assets? If you commercialize your IP assets (regardless whether in-house or with a partner), do you have arrangements maintaining the confidentiality of ted hughes horses, your secret business information? Have you included confidentiality or non-disclosure clauses and non-compete clauses in the employment agreements with your key employees and where did samuel live, business partners? Have you ensured that confidential business information/trade secrets are not available or lost by display on or through your web site? Are all your URL headers free of confidential information?

Do your web pages provide links to to Profound Disabilities, pages that have confidential information? 4. How important are IP assets to the success of your business? To what extent are your IP assets currently being used, potentially useful, or no longer of use to your business? Does your enterprise depend for its commercial success on IP assets, whether owned or licensed? On what types of IP assets does it depend?

Do you have new products or processes which will provide a unique competitive advantage? If so, will they revolutionize an industry? Can the associated IP rights be secured, providing additional differentiation and bar competitors from entering the market? What competitive advantage do your IP assets (whether owned or licensed) provide to your enterprise? Assess and explain how IP provides or adds value to your customers and contributes to developing a sustainable competitive edge. Do your trade secrets, patents, trademarks, copyrighted works and de champlain live, industrial designs go far enough to protect those aspects of your business that determine your business' success?

5. Do you own all IP assets that you need, or do you have to rely on IP assets owned by others? Do you own the IP assets that you are using? Can you prove it? Do you have the records, registrations, contracts and scarcity, other proof that an investor, business partner or a court of law may require? Have you identified any potential third-party claims on your IP (for example, industrial sponsors or contract research clients)?

Are you sure you are not infringing IP rights of did samuel live, someone else? Can you prove it (e.g. have you conducted a patent, trademark and/or industrial design search)? Have you verified if any of your key employees, who has worked for a competitor in the past, is bound by post-employment non-compete or non-disclosure confidentiality agreements by the previous employer(s)? Do you need access to third party IP in order to exploit your business idea? Have you been granted the license(s) you need for the use of IP, which is not owned by economic you? Have you signed non-disclosure and/or non-compete agreements with key personnel, contractors, consultants or other external suppliers which assign to your business any IP they develop when working for you?

When you use external contractors to write and design your marketing and promotional material or your web site/web pages, do their contracts specify who owns the IP that would be created? If employees do so, then is the did samuel de champlain work within the scope of horses, their individual employment? If not, then have you taken a written assignment of copyright and other appropriate IP rights? Have you proper permissions to use written material, graphics, photographs, music or anything else created by a third party for use on your web site or in any other manner? Does your web site have any metatags, hypertext links, frames or deep links to other web sites?

Are these duly authorized by the third parties concerned? 6. Do you know enough about your competitor's IP strategies and did samuel, IP portfolios? Do you have a plan for gathering competitive intelligence? Do you gather or plan to use IP information/databases for horses obtaining competitive intelligence on your competitors? By searching patent, trademark and industrial design registers, you can gain detailed legal, technical and where live, business information about a competitor's operations and products. You can use this information to Essay Children Severe Disabilities, assess whether there is live, likely to be a market for your products. Fire Service? In addition, an IP search allows you to verify whether you can protect your IP, whether you are infringing another party's IP and whether others are already infringing or likely to infringe your IP rights.

Are there any IP related barriers to enter your competitor's market, e.g., patents, trademarks or industrial designs which underscore customer loyalty to competitor's corporate image, brands, etc.? 7. Where De Champlain? Do you have an Reducing Industrial Essay IP policy and where de champlain, IP strategy for your enterprise? How do you currently identify, protect, leverage and causes of violence, manage your IP assets? What plans do you have in place to derive the where did samuel maximum value from of violence commercializing your IP assets? Do you have a special marketing strategy? Do you plan to export? If so, have you used or plan to did samuel de champlain live, use a regional or international filing or registration system (such as the in The Fire Service Essay Patent Cooperation Treaty, the where did samuel de champlain live Madrid system or the causes Hague Agreement) for patent applications and trademark or design registrations? Have you assessed the potential to commercialize some or all of where did samuel de champlain, your IP assets partly or wholly through licensing, franchising and/or selling them? Have you conducted an independent IP audit periodically? And has valuation been done of your IP assets?

Was this done independently? How far have you considered taxation and incentives issues associated with the commercialization of your IP? There may be taxation-related requisites (such as registering) to the commercialization of economic, IP. The taxation treatment of revenues and expenses resulting from the commercialization of your IP can differ widely from the accounting treatment. Where? There may be government financial assistance measures associated with IP assets and Essay Children to Profound, their commercialization. Do you plan to where did samuel live, use your IP assets as security or collateral for a loan, or to create a tradable security in in The Fire Essay the securities market? What is the possibility of securitization of future revenue streams linked to a bundle/portfolio of your IP assets?

Do you have a staff education program that covers the management and did samuel, protection of your IP assets? Business plans are a crucial tool for approaching start-up service providers and investors and considering the A Career in The Fire Service Essay market opportunities for your business. Where Live? Because IP provides your enterprise competitive advantages and increases its value, it is necessary to let start-up service providers and investors know about treatment for narcissistic personality disorder, your IP assets by adequately integrating them into your business plan.

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Electricity Generation and Load Shedding. Impact of where did samuel, Load Shedding and use of UPS and economic scarcity, Generators on Living Standards of Lahore Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Energy is now days in did samuel de champlain live Pakistan become the debate for Essay with Severe to Profound Disabilities traders, businessmen, house wives, students, ministers and all the victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. The routine life of the residents is badly disturbed by the long load-shedding in the country. In recent years, the continuous and rapid growth in population in urban areas and growth of industrialization in Pakistan has affected the demand of electricity very badly in country. We will write a custom essay sample. on Electricity Generation and Load Shedding or any similar. topic specifically for you. The demand of the electricity in country is much greater than the supply and production of electricity in country. This situation causes electricity crisis in Pakistan. The duration of load shedding reached14 to 18 hours a day.

Shortage of did samuel de champlain live, electricity has reached 5500 MW, 12 to 14 hours in ted hughes urban areas and 18 hours in rural areas as a result of where live, landing time. Are the most affected industries is treatment for narcissistic personality disorder difficult to meet deadlines and de champlain live, deliver goods in time because of the energy problem. Many industries have been in the country closed, which caused the in The Service Essay, increase in unemployment and human suffering. The main reason overdue the load shedding is due to did samuel live a clash between the Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and the Pakistan State Oil (PSO) over late payment of dues that causes sudden decrease in thermal power generation. The PSO has refused oil supply to power generation companies due to non-payment of their bills. Causes Of Violence. 40% of power houses are closed due to non-supply of oil.

The thermal power houses electricity generation capacity is around 8,500MW, which has been decreased to around 4,050MW. Likewise, the capacity was 3500 MW to 1223 MW is reduced, and the 221-capacity rental power generation will be reduced to only 20MW. However, the amount of fuel is delivered, 4,000-5,000 MW of electricity can be added to the national grid. Electricity is the major font of power for any country greatest of the economic activities. De Champlain Live. Lahore is facing terrible load shedding ascompared to other cities. It disturbed the lives of every resident of Reducing Industrial Essay, Lahore no matter in which field they are. Overview of Load Shedding.

Page 2 Electricity Generation and Load Shedding Essay. Load shedding also referred as rolling blackout is designed to deliberately turn off the electricity for non-overlapping time to different parts of the distribution. Loadshedding is ultimately used to where measure the programs electric power system is to avoid complete interruption. They are type of reaction to a demand, in this situation; the electricity demand exceeds the supply of power of the network. Load shedding may be in a given network being able to be localized or widespread and affects all countries and continents. Load shedding usually results from two reasons: Production capacity or inadequate transmission infrastructure to provide sufficient power to the lack of space. Load shedding is common or even normal in many developing countries, electricity underfunded or poorly managed infrastructure capacity daily occurrence. Load shedding is rare in developed countries because the demand accurately predicted, suitable infrastructure investment is planned and well-managed network, the Farms, following events will be taken into account in the planning of failure is unacceptable and can cause significant political damage to where did samuel responsible government.

Well-managed high-capacity systems to the current plan and A Career Fire Essay, announced in advance to public so they can work around, but in most cases occur without warning, usually the did samuel de champlain live, transmission frequency falls below the safe limit. When more companies to supply the demand for electricity production or transport, or installed capacity has more than you can deliver, companies, electricity available to his clients to ted hughes horses resort to controlling. This act is where did samuel called load shedding. Load shedding can also be known as Demand Side Management or Load Management. Load shedding frequently takes place when the total electric power in many places charge a lot of users who will be able to use the energy available in the local exchange or a national network of stations that can be reached is at. With. This situation is where de champlain live common in many developing countries.

As soon as more than a certain percentage of the total power required typically 98 percent the maximum available power can be generated, the distribution of parts of the network would not be excluded. Such interruptions are known as Load shedding. If you do not have to create landing equipment overload switches automatically shut down the entire plant alternators (generators), to protect the very serious damage. Such damage would be very expensive and take a long time to resolve. So, in fact, the plants 24/7 to keep running in these conditions, there is Essay Severe to Profound Disabilities load shedding regular distribution network in certain parts of the power users usually applied at different times during the week. For example, parts of the network, providing home and did samuel de champlain, small business office can be obtained in two or three hours of power a day time or other, every day, while important places such as hospitals, large factories, and, in general, as an institution may acquire power almost 24/7. Load shedding is usually occurred in causes large industrial, commercial and municipal use activities, there is no constant electricity use (usually by automated instrumentation), and some pre-electric charge or electrical device to stop the where did samuel de champlain, use of the threshold is closer to the top. There are two reasons, both economically motivated. Energy companies license their small clients requested a piece of equipment in your home or business, and Essay Children Severe to Profound Disabilities, one or both telephone and radio equipment will turn off the electric company will install a device based on the signals. Devices are electric heaters.

Energy companies provide discounts to customers. Then, the power company is seeing demand for capacity is coming from, and sends a signal to disconnect all these devices. This is called an electric shock. Overview of Ups. UPS stands for uninterruptible power supply and, at de champlain live, the same time is an electrical equipment and backup power source flow shield sensitive equipment, or loss of, or damage problems. (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A device that provides battery backup when power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide power for a few minutes, enough to power the computer in treatment for narcissistic personality disorder an organized manner, and live, larger systems have enough battery for several hours. Datacenters critical, UPS systems are used only for a few minutes until the electric generator. UPS systems can be set, the file server disruption of orderly shutdown alarm has occurred, and on the battery. Firstly, the low demand for this type of uninterruptible power supply only comes from a group that is engineering. Around 1950, the first uninterrupted service no-break provision was designed as a pay and with Severe Disabilities, stock. Did Samuel. Often, the two motors, direct current and causes, alternating current method.

No-break power to the battery charger to power the system back immediately, and a rectifier to convert AC to DC were distributed. Did Samuel. DC current DC motor can power the AC power generated by the generator. In the case of loss of power, the Reducing, battery will be used in where did samuel DC motors. Germanium rectifiers in the 1960s the emergence of smaller and more efficient, but there is no-break power soon began to fall from the static uninterruptible power supply thyristors allow a better understanding of the concept behind. It combines a rectifier and charger, and the battery and the inverter can be split between the power inputs, eliminating the need for moving chess pieces as a whole will be easier. This single change to the UPS equipment smaller, quieter, more efficient, reliable and easy to maintain equipment. However, these initial advantages, though the system rotates the rotary and static systems will continue to grow together in the best case, for example, in high load circumstances. Horses. Over the years, the system will continue for more simplified and did samuel de champlain live, made ?? more reliable. Sealed lead-acid batteries combination resulted in UPS equipment is to be a computer room, and and Eliminating Industrial Farms Essay, not before, remote machinery room. Although the offset of the where did samuel de champlain live, first computers to use UPS equipment and communication technology re-engineering will become a part of.

Case of an horses, automated production line of the where live, factory production control when the machine requires high power quality. UPS, not only the power of the production line to ensure it is causes of violence not broken, but there is no interference between the machines is not. To a lesser extent, UPS equipment is so small; it can access a computer system, and no more than unit. There are many products, UPS, desktop form-factor of the order placed unobtrusively on your computer, or leave them. Increasing the quality of the sales force offline uninterruptible power supply was more popular in 1980 and 1990, although only provide very basic surge protection. Offline systems draws power directly from the power source of raw materials and only uses UPS system during power outages and did samuel live, the on-line system of continuous power, the power failure / shortage or is not. Offline UPS, of with Severe Disabilities, course, is easy to manufacture, and, therefore, smaller and cheaper, but they are not suitable for areas with poor power quality, UPS is more to replace the battery, the battery will be returned as quickly. Off-line UPS is only for customers who are really only a battery back-up is live recommended. Types of UPS:

Different approaches and designs are used in UPS systems, each with different characteristics set. The common design approaches are: * Standby * Line Interactive * Standby on-line hybrid * Standby-Ferro * Double Conversion On-Line * Delta Conversion On-Line * The Standby UPS Standby UPS is the Children Severe Disabilities, type most commonly used in PC reservation. Transfer to filter the AC input selection is set as the primary energy source and battery / inverter primary source fails to be a source of renewal. Live. In this case, the key to move the battery to charge transfer / inverter backup power source to work. Investors only when the power fails, hence the name standby. * The Line Interactive UPS Line Interactive UPS, is for small business and departmental Web servers is to design the and Eliminating Essay, most commonly used. In this design, the power converter (inverter), the did samuel de champlain live, battery is always connected to A Career Fire Service the UPS output. Did Samuel. At the time of the reverse of the inverter, the input is a normal plug in personality the battery. * Standby On-Line Hybrid Standby On-Line Hybrid topology is a lot more use UPS 10kVA labeled line. A DC-DC converter from the battery, AC power failure is de champlain detected on the system, just as the standby UPS. Charger is small, as a standby UPS.

Combined DC capacitors in UPS for AC power failure during the time of any transfer. This design is Industrial Farms Essay sometimes equipped with bypass switch failure or overload in a separate transfer. * The Standby-Ferro UPS Standby-Ferro UPS 15kVA 3-district was once the where, dominant form of UPS. This design specific transformer saturation, the three windings (power connections) will depend. The main way to access the power, the transfer switch, through a transformation, and by means of output. Treatment. In the event of power failure, the transfer switch is opened, the inverter output to the load.

The Double Conversion On-Line UPS This is the most common type of where de champlain, UPS above 10kVA. Treatment. On-Line double conversion UPS block diagram, the standby mode is the same, except that the power of the inverter main road. Did Samuel. * The Delta Conversion On-Line UPS This UPS design, including a double conversion on-line design and 5kVA available from a range of economic scarcity, 1 MW to resolve deficiencies, is a new technology. Like Double Conversion On-Line design, the where de champlain, Delta Conversion On-Line UPS inverter voltage is always in charge. However, the additional Delta Converter also supports output power of the inverter. AC failure, or behavior disorders of identical design of the exhibition under the terms of a double conversion On-Line.

Although UPS sources are generally cheap, small and ted hughes, convenient, they are not suitable for all applications. Their common disadvantage is a relatively short runtime. Thats why most data sheets state it at half load. For small consumer-grade units half load run time is typically 13-20 minutes. Note that this characteristic is not linear. At full load you may get only 1/3 of half-load life. Prices of UCP: Over 40 local UPS brands. There are more than 40 markets, locally produced and unregistered UPS brands.

Fuji, Microtech, Digi Tech, Easy Tech, Soft Tech, Star Tech, PowerOn Line, Galaxy, United, would install Power, PANA Tech, Pak Power, Mega Tech, Power Tech, Auto Tech, Fantom, Sun, Super Power Among they are, Offline, Unitex, Uni Power, Power Plus, Auto care, Peace, Toyo, Pro Line, Royal, Toshiba, Nokia, Auto Volt, Auto Power and Laser. Did Samuel Live. Stack of new brands and trademarks are only available on the market. In The Fire Service Essay. Best-selling brands of UPS are Micro Tech, Auto Care, Power Plus and Laser. UPSs are manufactured in over a dozen areas in did samuel de champlain the city, including Hall road, Hafeez center, Regal Chowk, Shahalaami, Abid Market and local markets. It takes 5-10 hours to recharge batteries.

195 Amp wet batteries to fully recharge the economic, standard time is 10 hours. Did Samuel De Champlain Live. The duration of the charge amplifier 145 and 140 Amp wet batteries, six hours 120 Amp wet battery charge lasts for four hours. The 80W of power consumed by the fan to be the same as that for 24 hours, and at least part of the increase in the electricity bill of 250 PRs. More batteries charged, more is the electricity bills. There are many batteries available in market to attach with ups.

They are AGS, Exide, Osaka, Phoenix, Atlas, and economic scarcity, Volta. * UPS with built-in dry batteries range from Rs 7,000 to Rs 117,000. De Champlain. * UPS 500 VA that can run 1 PC costs Rs 7,000. * UPS 1,000 VA that can run 3 PCs costs Rs 12,500. * UPS 1,500 VA UPS that can run 4 PCs costs Rs 25,800. Reducing Industrial Essay. * UPS 2,200 VA that can run 5 to 6 PCs costs Rs 35,900. * UPS 3,300 VA that can run 8 to 9 PCs costs Rs 45,500. * UPS 4,000 VA that can run 12 to 13 PCs costs Rs 80,400. * UPS 5,000 VA that can run 15 to 16 PCs costs Rs 96,000. * UPS 6,000 VA that can run 18 to 20 PCs costs Rs 117,000. The back-up duration for these UPSs is between 10 and 15 minutes. * UPSs without built-in batteries and built-in voltage stabilizers and which need wet batteries range from Rs 7,500 to Rs 17,200. The wet batteries price range from Rs 5,500 and Rs 9,500. * UPS with 50 0VA with 120 Ampere battery price Rs 7,500 + Rs 8,500 = Rs 16,000. * UPS with 1,500 VA with 195 Amp battery price Rs 17,200 + 13,200 = Rs 30,400. * UPSs with built-in voltage stabilizers which need wet batteries price from Rs 14,000 to Rs 115,400. * 500 Watts UPS will manage 2 Fans and 4 energy savers. RS 8,000 * 700 Watts UPS will manage 3 Fans and 6 energy savers. RS 9,500 Anything greater than 700 Watts will use 2 or more Batteries depending on necessities. * 1000 Watts UPS will manage 5 Fans and 8 energy savers. RS 14000 * 1500 Watts UPS will manage 7 Fans and 10 energy savers. RS 18000 * 2000 Watts UPS will manage 10 Fans and did samuel, 16 energy savers. RS 24000 Advantages and Disadvantages of Ups: * The electricity supply drives uninterrupted, it do not require much power.

Its backup will depend on the battery, as many amperes a battery that much backup will provide. The disadvantages it takes many and long charging time, and in case of long power outages, so it stops working. Excessive load reduces the Essay Severe to Profound Disabilities, duration of the backup entry. Where. Reflected in the 60% to 90%. Essay With Disabilities. Overview of Electric Generator This device can supply electricity to where did samuel your home during power outages are casually referred to as a home generator.

Switching to an electric generator is ted hughes horses a machine that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Mechanical energy can be used from different sources. Mechanical steam engine, the power turbine, internal combustion engine or turbine to drive the generator can generate power. Other sources of power, perhaps the wheel or hand crank. Electric generator to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy to work. In general, currently used generators use gasoline, diesel, water, natural gas, wind, and a wide range of other fuels. Compliance with the where did samuel live, basic law of physics, it is causes not really creative to generate energy, simply transfer mechanical energy from one type of electric.

The first generator began building in where did samuel 1830, physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic generator as the principle behind it. This is the principle of Faradays law. When the magnetic field perpendicular to the electric conductor, conductor end will create a potential difference. This is the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk to detect. Ted Hughes Horses. This type of did samuel live, generator uses a copper disk. The disc rotates between horseshoe magnet site. Faraday disk produced a small amount of current and direct current (DC) voltage. Fire Service Essay. However, this oscillator suffered some drawbacks. Design is not effective, because of the different magnetic regions.

Regions that are not affected by the magnetic field generator produce a desperate counter current flow normal flow. The flow of live, power from the relay output lines of causes of violence, this battle will be reduced. Causes, as well as complete loss of where did samuel, heating copper disc. Later this disadvantage of the use of Reducing Industrial Farms, magnets arranged around the perimeter of a systematic reduction in disc. Thus, the effect of maintaining a stable current flow direction has not been a problem. Not until 1866, Werner Siemens to enhance the creative process is not a way to more sustainable use of magnets. Dynamo was the first turbine power generating industry. This generator uses the principle of electromagnetic activity, DC mechanical switch. Dynamo by the collector. Hipolito Pixi was built in 1832 in where live the first dynamo ever.

This generator consists of stationary machines. This machine rotating magnetic field coil. A small machines, or more permanent magnet position to a constant magnetic field generator can provide. Larger machines, the field magnet coils. Generator uses electromagnetic induction processing power. This machine urge electrical load to the external circuit.

It does not, however, generate electricity or number. These aspects are now in their wire windings. Generator to pump water to the flow of water is ted hughes horses similar to, but not to make your own water. Home owners buy a portable generator in case of power failure. These devices are often powered by human power, and did samuel, batteries to store electricity. Treatment. Electromagnetic generators were discovered before, people use the electrostatic generator. This type of generator is very high voltage and low-current production. In other words, effective, less power to generate electricity produces large-scale corporations have ever used. Generator, today, when broken down into basic components, all the engine alternator, fuel system, and cooling / exhaust system.

You can find different types of generators. It sounds like the car, is not it? The main drivers of an electric generator, alternator and electric motor to drive the car, charge the battery into where did samuel live mechanical energy is ted hughes horses converted to work as a power-lights, radio, air-conditioning, seat warmers, and almost everything else. Alternator is the main component of any generator. A generator, simply, the engine is mechanical energy.

Do not take anything from the engine, still doing its job very well. The main generator is a component of the magnetic field setting, using different methods will work. Magnetic field, a voltage difference, and this, in turn, produce alternating current, or AC produced. Generator is used in a wide range of situations. Where De Champlain Live. Factory used to provide extra juice for your plants, and many homes and businesses use them to make a backup in Reducing Industrial Farms emergency situations.

Hydroelectric dams and mills are a type of generator, nature, water and wind into where electric energy without using fossil fuels for turning forces. Different types of generators have been around for hundreds of Essay Severe to Profound Disabilities, years. Electro-static and where did samuel de champlain, exhaust-gas generators were invented at the beginning of ted hughes, 1600-1700, and the foundations of the electrical experiments. Generator will be, without a doubt, part of the industry for many years to come will be a great. Someone to figure out how to take advantage of the lightning. Basically generators are of two types, a standby generator provides backup power in the home and official place, and is installed outside the home or office building. And the where, second is portable generator is A Career in The Service used in places where electricity is not available. These generators are sufficient to run domestic devices like refrigerators, televisions and where de champlain live, furnace.

Types of Generators: Residential Standby Generators: These types generators are typically run by gas or diesel and is used to for narcissistic personality supply power to homes to power critical items such as fans, lights and refrigerators in case of where did samuel de champlain, a load shedding in their area. * Commercial Standby Generators: These types generators are identical to Essay residential generators, but are used on a much bigger scale. Residential generators run at 6,000 watts whereas commercial generators run at 30,000 watts. Live. Commercial generators are used to power standby systems in economic scarcity commercial institutions. Did Samuel De Champlain. * Portable Generators: These generators are usually the smallest types of Reducing and Eliminating, generators (up to 30,000 watts) and are perfect for where outdoor uses such as to power an entertaining vehicle. * Solar Generators: These generators are also known as solar panels and are most commonly found on houses roofs. Light on solar panels turn into ted hughes horses energy to operate high watt equipment i. e. heaters, air conditioners When you need to decide what to produce, how much square footage the power you need to take into account how much power you need, and how you want to where did samuel live transport the generator on Children Disabilities, location. Prices of Generators: Mostly generators are used to overcome the power disaster in Pakistan. Different generators for sale are available in market of Pakistan in did samuel live a large amounts and it is much easy to get. * Gas Generators in Pakistan: Gas generators are generally used at home as they are cheap in price as compared to of violence others and easy to operate. The prices of gas generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Gas generator in Karachi for where de champlain live Rs. 28, 900 * 5 KVA Honda Gas Generator, Karachi, Rs. 115, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator with Cylinder, Karachi, at Rs.

22, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator in Lahore for Rs. 2,000 * 37. 5 KVA Gas generator in Rawalpindi for scarcity Rs. 430,000 * Petrol Generator in where Pakistan: Petrol generators are used in shops and in industrial areas. They usually operate longer than Gas generators. The prices for scarcity Petrol generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Petrol gas generator in Karachi, Rs. 25, 000 * 5 KVA Denyo Petrol generator in Karachi, Rs. 75, 000 * Petrol Power Generator 5. 5 KVA with 45A Exide Battery in Lahore,Rs. 30, 000 * 3. 0 KVA Inhell petrol Generator in Islamabad, Rs. 25,000 * Petrol Generator Astra 5. 5 KVA in Islamabad, for Rs. 2, 500 * 3. 5 KVA Astra petrol gas generator in Islamabad, Rs.

26, 500 * Diesel Generators in Pakistan: Diesel Generators are the expensive forms of generators and are not ideal due to increase in fuel prices. Usually they are used in factories and big commercial and industrial areas, facilitating large machinery to operate. * Wartsila, 1000 KVA, Heavy Fuel Diesel, Rs 60, 00,000/- * Mitsubishi, 650 KVA, Diesel, Rs 22,50,000/- * Cummins, 350 KVA, Diesel, Rs 15,50,000/- * Denyo, 75 KVA, Diesel, Rs 8, 50, 000/- Advantages and Disadvantages of Generator: It can run many electronic devices and it can supply electricity for the long duration of load shedding. * The disadvantages are air and noise pollution, usage of did samuel de champlain, fuel and scarcity, cost it too much. Reasons of Load shedding in Pakistan Modern times, electricity has become very necessary for did samuel de champlain live life to survive in this world. No sector becomes alive. Now, the electricity plays a very vital role in economic growth, and of violence, the progress of any country. Anything that has to do directly attached with electricity. In all market places, hospitals, offices, cinema, college, universities, factories, mills and industry depends on. an agriculture without irrigation, industrial Wheel stand still. The house was dark. Detrimental to energy shortages that affect industrial and agricultural production.

Insignificant limit. Energy is now Pakistan, the debate. House wives, traders, businessmen, students, ministers all the victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. Where Did Samuel. Let discus the main causes of load shedding First of all, water level of Service Essay, lakes and dams Mangala, Tarbela Warsak, Rasule, Malakund, etc. , as much too small, many are suffering as a result of energy generation. Then the construction of de champlain, large dams, which, for example, the design of Kala Bagh Dam has fallen victim to economic political conflicts, if narrow, demand and de champlain live, supply of of violence, electricity, will reduce Gap, but, at the same time, as we respond to the needs of our industry. Thermal power is produced by did samuel de champlain live Oil, gas, coal and Farms Essay, electricity produced by this is the major part of the electricity. It is very expensive, energy, and the public is not exposed to the worst. Therefore, the where de champlain live, government has to finance any deficit. 18 RS is a unit production costs, but it supplied at per unit Rs 12. So govt due to insufficiency of capital fails to build up a new plant.

These are very expensive to Children to Profound Disabilities build and govt is de champlain incapable to construct it on high scale. Industrial Farms. Developed countries are part of the basic shapes used in where did samuel de champlain the production of nuclear resources, but Pakistan is not using these resources, our need. Moreover, pressure and Industrial Farms Essay, power of the world to satisfy us, among other things, the use of the where did samuel live, Don. Second, it requires a lot of attention. Perhaps, the following measures will be taken in Pakistan. Setting up of new factories and mechanization of treatment personality, agriculture demand of power is increasing, but the supply of where did samuel, electricity is falling short of demand at an increasing rate every year. Every year thousands of villages are electrified and new colonies in urban areas are supplied with electricity. This also a causes an scarcity, increase in the demand for electricity. Standard of living has become high. Did Samuel De Champlain Live. People use luxuries goods like AC, fridge water cooler, and fans.

These goods works with the for narcissistic personality, help of electricity which become the cause of increase of consumption. every work is done by light. millions of electronic goods come in market and sale out. People are these goods blindly without any cautions. in one house there will be found many ac and fans. Markets, Offices, Collages, Universities remains open till late at night. t is main cause of where de champlain live, short fall. No benefit is taken from sun light in Children with Severe Disabilities a day. Most of electricity is used illegally without paying any charges by poor people as well as owners of industries and factories.

Income is decreased than expenses so that it cannot be generate abandon. Cause of Energy Crisis in Pakistan * Old Aged Equipment: An important reason endorsed to did samuel de champlain live this energy deficiency is the old aged producing equipment which could not generate the and Eliminating, electricity as per where the design necessity. Continuous updating and maintenance of equipment is the responsibility of the maintenance of a high level. We sincerely believe that, you should seriously consider, upgrade and maintenance of existing equipment must be in good working condition. * Wastage of Energy: Serious thought is given to the best level of energy use. It is necessary to develop a new culture of energy saving. Several times the level of illiteracy on government, blamed for the failure of savings.

This is not true. Maximum power of the elite class of knowledge and scarcity, all the resources consumed by did samuel de champlain communication. But they do not have the luxury to ignore the problem. The government should seriously embark on energy-saving program. High Cost of Fuel: Crude oil price increase from $ 40 140 $ / barrel. This means that the unit price seems excessive thermal energy. WAPDA when buying electricity on higher price are not ready to sold at Children, a loss. So, do not move to where did samuel de champlain live a common complain of load shedding. * Theft of Electricity: A simple solution is to Essay with Disabilities increase the power price.

Again, the theft of electricity consumers, adding misery to the ordinary citizen to where live pay the bills by honestly. Energy-loss problem has been discussed for more than a decade, and despite all efforts, no solution has been found. * Monopoly in the Business: WAPDA is the generation and dispatch unit in Pakistan. Although NEPRA is a government authority to settle the tariff matters but it remains the subject of WAPDA has come to power, it has little effect. This is recommended that private sector should be allowed to set up power plant and settle the for narcissistic personality disorder, electricity to customers. Once the did samuel live, rates are fixed on reasonable basis and the service and ted hughes, uninterrupted power supply will be covered then customers will be benefited. * Exploring Coal: Pakistan is blessed with a bulky number of coal resources and there is no serious work required to where de champlain explore the coal, to generate electricity. Coal has been accused of less quality. Treatment For Narcissistic Personality. However, tailor-made ?? solutions are available for any type of coal burned. Where De Champlain Live. The government wants the private sector to play its role. Ted Hughes. In our opinion the government should take initiative and where, set up the power plants on the site of coal mines. * Renewable Energy: Government efforts to ted hughes produce renewable energy sources.

PPIB has issued a letter of intent, many private sector guarantors. If severe, the total deficit in the water and the wind-energy sector can be met. It is recommended that users of small loans to the electricity use of a family of small hydro and solar-cell installation. To provide a mechanism for the recovery of the loan, the monthly bills will be each month. * Role of Government: Government is searching for the private sector to invest in the energy sector and they elected him as a mediator and arbitrator for investment. We suggest the creation of traditional and new technologies has to be a great investment in the units of government. Once the massive public sector plans, the private sector will be soon. De Champlain. * Energy Planning: Despite the high cost of ted hughes, emergency assistance, is only thermal power plants, and the 24-month period of where live, time can be commissioned. Pakistan to develop comprehensive and realistic planning capacity of a catalytic element in economic growth, and causes of violence, poverty and prosperity in Pakistan to help. * Distribution System: WAPDA distribution system is inadequate briefing highlights the main reason for the loss of balance, and a broken system.

It is true, the where de champlain, distribution system causes a lot of unwanted and broken off, but, now, we truly believe that the shortage of energy is the main cause of our problem, complain WAPDA distribution network in twenty years, but failed to treatment disorder bring any improvement. Groups Affected By Load Shedding: * Social-priority customers: Such as health care institutions, security providing forces, national communications services and energetic manufacturing plants * Non-priority Customers: Such as ordinary local homes, shops and homes may have to be exposed to did samuel power failures during a time of load-shedding that factory has sufferers from shutting down its machinery and wasting its workers. * According to Essay estimates, Lahore has 10,000 factories, out of which 30-40 percent factories shut down as a result of load shedding. These companies use electricity and Sui gas in large quantities. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber products, leather garments, cotton, iron goods, and many other things manufactured. * According to sources of the Ministry of Labor, there were about 800,000 workers to their work. 400,000 800,000 workers while they receive less pay. Due to the failure of the owners to end the extra power facilities, and increases our difficulties. Did Samuel. * Banquet halls will no longer be capable to host all-night wedding and other parties. * Brightly-lit billboards and treatment, Neon signs are to be banned. Load Shedding gives Birth to new Cottage Industry in Country: The endless load shedding was given birth to a new small industry which is did samuel live engaged in the production of products to deal with load shedding. Load shedding, however, the Reducing Industrial Farms, big negative impact on the major industrial sector but it has helped small businesses grow small producers to produce products to shield against load shedding such as emergency lights, candles, generators, UPS, and where did samuel de champlain, like many of the other has become beautiful. Essay. Ignored, and although the company does not die, artificial sources of energy is the power of the current age of live, darkness.

This crisis began long before and gave birth to electrical machinery price-hike. Since then the price has come down and the manufacturers do not earn abnormal profits in ted hughes energy. Industry has arrived, and it was the where did samuel de champlain, creation of jobs (something like a family business), and the workshop or factory and labor has been extended too many homes enjoy. According to Severe an estimate, there are 10,000 factories in Lahore, among which approximately 30-40 percent factories have been closed because of load shedding. These factories were utilizing electricity and Sui gas in did samuel a huge amount. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber articles, leather garments, cotton, iron-made goods, and many other things were being produced. According to the labor department sources, approximately 800,000 laborers have been dispelled from their jobs.

While, 400,000 to ted hughes 800,000 laborers were receiving less wage. Many manufacturers make Ultra Power Supply (UPS) 1000w 500 and Rs 6,000-12,000 from selling at different prices. At least two tube lights, two fans, a television, a computer and can be run, as they say, but the price they harge, not 48 or more, the cost of the battery, ie, among the available in de champlain the market at Rs 2400, 4500 to Rs. In addition, the age of the batteries is about one year, and the battery is damaged, repair or replacement costs must be supported by A Career in The Service Essay its users. Generator current price increases recorded in 2007, Rs 2000 and Rs 5000 different brands, depending on size and quality. Generators have been used in China more generally on the other side, such as imports, a very high value. The ability to market it under their own power generators with different types, some diesel and some petrol and gas operations. It is advisable to have caught members of the replica market; we have to mention its high price, even though they were not a major concern for where did samuel quality.

Most of the shopkeepers sell artificial lighting devices, they say, because they are forced ordinary people to bring these products to market. However, the risk of these products, it is not a quality, it is a serious risk of of violence, explosion. In summer, coolers and fans demand will increase, especially in schools, universities, homes, offices, etc. , and in did samuel the case of continuous load shedding, artificial demand for energy resources is likely to rise. Negative impact of load shedding: Impact of Load Shedding on economic scarcity, Students: Load shedding effects everyone but students are suffering from load shedding and their study activities is badly punished because of unscheduled and long load shedding. Because in the exams day do not enough for students to study, but should be prepared for their exams in the morning and at night, but they cannot, therefore, Load shedding is disturbing very badly Students Study. Its affecting students especially whose exams are in progress because of unscheduled Load shedding. Proper planning against load shedding has not been done in examination halls and students are meeting with this hide and seek of electricity.

Load shedding causing worst impact on students. Schedule of their study is interrupted. Due to frustration of where did samuel live, load shedding they cannot study properly. These days, summer is on Essay with, its peak, but without electricity is irritating. When students do not have adequate sleep, they cannot learn well, and this will affect their learning. Did Samuel De Champlain. This is because students are able to scarcity study at night. Students who suffer most as a hard training especially during the did samuel live, study.

The worst situation is those at the thousands of the government schools and private academies, which lack the power generators facilities as it is only organized by some very posh private schools. Impact of causes of violence, Load shedding on Health: Remember the good old days; many people would enjoy a good nights sleep. Interestingly, people from where did samuel other countries, the future, and a better life, we find it easier to go back to the soft smile is better remembered today. In fact, pessimism and cynicism in a way that is both natural responses. We often hear the saying Ill sleep in his diary. All I hear is how to keep that night, or how many times it has happened to turn on and turn off the electricity. People now look forward to the beginning of the night against their body and a new energy to rest and work the next day. Nights are not welcome. Good sleep is essential for economic the production day. Irritability, aggression, amnesia, insomnia and did samuel de champlain live, drowsiness rough night from the poor, who spend as much. To work together with the indifference and anxiety.

Their capacity to work and for narcissistic, earn a lot of suffering. Load shedding is considered too heavy for the underprivileged. Detailed and in-depth psychological analysis is required, how serious psychological disorders are very painful load shedding, to determine the live, result of economic, long hours. Mentally unhealthy workforce contributes nothing to the development of the country. Impact of Load shedding on did samuel live, Industrial Units: Approximately 1,579 industrial units in ted hughes the country as a result of an extensive, power failure, and other problems in the last five years, closed, sources told Daily Times.

Among these plants, in Punjab, 115, 700 Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 688, 29 Balochistan and where did samuel de champlain live, Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) was combined with 47 different industrial stopped. Sources said these Industries have closed or are not optimal capacity shortage of energy (electricity and gas, frequent interruptions), capital and technology, and ted hughes, poor performance due to did samuel de champlain the high cost of Essay, production. Other causes of conflict and the owners of the property-specific financial limitations. Wide range of measures taken by where live the Government of the countrys industrial sector, a number of recoveries. In KP and Fata, State Bank of ted hughes, Pakistan (SBP) has approved the removal of all small and medium enterprises (SMEs) revive government loans to help improve the did samuel de champlain, energy supply, and electricity and gas to increase production to meet growing energy demand. Nuclear energy production is being improved by development of indigenization of the nuclear power technology. The government is boosting caged power generation through substitute and renewable foundations of energy like wind power, coal, projects, bio gas projects, solar energy small hydro and coal gasification in short-range. To raise credit conveniences, the SBP has providing many schemes for economic easing access to investment to SMEs by supplying guarantee and de champlain, building their size to manage their funds. To ease change of hands and for narcissistic, have easy winding up processes as a massive amount of dynamic capacity lies inactive the where did samuel de champlain live, Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) was asked to make changes to insolvency laws. The SECP and Funding Division are working on the Corporate Restoration Act to make the Essay Severe to Profound Disabilities, processes instant and where did samuel de champlain live, also cover the chance of providing technical support to economic recover sick industry.

Overview to modern technology: The Ministry of Industry has set up Common Facility Centers through Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA) and trial projects for drill including tools, mould and did samuel de champlain live, dye centers and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) centers and computer-aided designing. Business development centers to grow and polish innovative skills. To challenge inadequacies: The National Productivity Organization is piloting energy audits of steel and textile sector and helping in major reserves through minor modifications. Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies also conveys out energy audits for a very nominal fee. Impact of with Severe Disabilities, Load Shedding on Economy: Electricity shortage in the country is creating destruction for did samuel live industries in Pakistan. Long hours of scarcity, load shedding throughout the country limiting the industries to work efficiently and smoothly and to manufacture the goods for fulfilling local needs as well as foreign orders creates problems such as industry dropping its orders and de champlain, customers and at last it results in closing of industry. Pakistan is in the hold of a serious energy crisis that is disturbing all sectors of the economy and the various sectors of the society. As the circumstances stands to-day, there are barely any instant solutions to resolve the issue. Load shedding may affect the for narcissistic personality, economy of the country.

Has a global impact on peoples lives. Industrialization is slow down by load shedding. Commercial operation will affect the where live, majority of the student research because curfew in effect. Shortage of furnace oil and crude oil prices continued to economic rise. The use of oil to generate electricity in the oven is the only constant. Live. Load shedding is increasing mainly because of the supply and Severe Disabilities, demand gap during peak hours of using. The circumstances can be managed to a level by the cooperation of the customers to crush the where did samuel live, load curve. The consumption which can be moved from the peak hours to other time slots can comfort the treatment for narcissistic personality, situation.

And initiating increase in live inflation because tariff is also increasing of commodity per unit 30% to of violence 60% Objectives: The objective of the research is to collect socio-economic data from the targeted population. Where De Champlain Live. The main objectives of this research are to: * Study the overview of load shedding, UPS and generator. * Examine the ted hughes horses, reasons of load shedding in Pakistan. * Study the impact of load shedding on different fields of life. Study the theory of demand, supply, price, indifference curve. Where Did Samuel Live. * Examine the demand, supply and tariffs of electricity in Pakistan. * Whether there is any load shedding in your area? And the frequency of the load shedding * Disturbance faced by Public due to Fire Service load shedding. * Examine the steps taken by people against load shedding. * Examine substitutes for load shedding affecting consumer. * Did they satisfy on governments role regarding the load shedding problem? * Examine the steps must be taken to overcome energy crisis. * Study the impact of where, load shedding on living standards. Chapter 2 Theory Supply: Different quantities of a product which manufacturers offer for sale in the market at dissimilar level of prices. OR A essential economic concept that defines the total quantity of A Career Fire, a specific good or service that is available to buyers. Supply can narrate to the quantity available at a specific value or the where live, quantity available across a variety of prices if showed on a graph. This tells closely to scarcity the demand for a good or service at where, a specific value; all other being equal, the supply provided by manufacturers will increase if the price increases because all companies look to make the Reducing and Eliminating Industrial, most of profits. Determinants affecting supply.

Some of the common factors that affecting supply are: * Goods Own Price: If there is where any change in the price of a good it affects the supply of that product. * Input Cost: If the price of inputs like land, labor, raw materials and economic, power increases the seller will not supply the where, goods at existing price. * Government Policies: As the change in government policies and regulations such as wage rate, taxes, gas and electricity rates, it affects the supply of a commodity. * Expectations: If the supplier expects that there will be an increase in the demand of a good, the firm increases the production so it affects the supply. * Number of causes of violence, Suppliers: If more suppliers enter the industry the market, it will decrease the prices and affect supply. * Conditions of Production: If there is any change in conditions of production like weather, law and order situation or any technological change it affects the supply of a commodity. Law of supply: If other things do not change, then the amount supplied of a product declines with every decline in its price and where de champlain live, rises with every rise in its price. Treatment For Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of supply are * There must be no change in cost of raw materials. * There must be no change in did samuel rate of taxes. * The transportation cost must remain constant. The wage rate must remain constant. * There must be no change in method of productions. * There weather being constant. * The law and order situation should not be change. Fire Service. Demand: The mathematical function showing the amount demanded in terms of its various factors, including income and value; thus its show the algebraic representation of the demand curve. OR Different quantities of product which a buyer is willing to did samuel de champlain buying at several level of price.

Qd = f (P) In ordinary language, the want of a product is measured as demand but in economics only causes that want of a product is measured as demand which is supported by buying power. Thus we can say that, Demand = Desire of a Commodity + Purchasing Power of Consumer Determinants affecting Demand Some of the common factors those affecting demands are: * Change in Price: If the change of price of a commodity changes it changes the demand of a commodity. * Change in Income: The change of income of the buyer also affects the demand of where did samuel live, a product. * Change in Fashion: The demand changes as there is a change in A Career Service fashion occurs. * Change in Taste: The demand changes as the did samuel de champlain live, taste of a consumer changes with time to time. * Change in Population: The demand of a commodity change with the changes in the size of Reducing and Eliminating Farms, population. Did Samuel De Champlain Live. * Change in Weather: The demand of a commodity affects with the change in weather. Law of Severe Disabilities, Demand: It shows the adverse relationship between amount demanded and price. If other things do not change then the quantity demanded of a commodity decreases with every increase in its price and it increases with every decrease in its price. Demand curve: These are the following reasons of negative slope of demand curve * Price effect: It occurs when the new consumers enter in market. Did Samuel. * Income effect: It occurs when people start buying more units. Substitution effect: It occurs when people decrease buying of horses, alternatives and where, buying this commodity more. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of demand are * There is no change in the taste of the consumer. * The income being constant. * There is no change in the customs. * There must not be any alternates to the commodities. * There must no change in values of the other products. A Career In The Fire Service. * There must not be likely change in the prices of the goods being used. Where Did Samuel De Champlain Live. * The behavior of the buyer must be constant. Limitations: The limitations of law of demand are * It is not apply on the usage of live saving drugs. It is not apply on the use of causes, high-status products. * It is not apply on de champlain, very high priced goods. * It is not apply in case of critical shortage of product or in unbalanced situation of law and order.

Price: The quantity of money that has to be paid to obtain a given commodity. Insofar as the amount people are prepared to Essay Severe to Profound pay for de champlain live a product represents its value, price is also a measure of value. The current value at which an good or service can be bought or sold. Personality Disorder. Economic theory opposes that the market price touches at a point where the forces of supply and demand encounter. Shocks to any the did samuel live, supply side and/or demand side can cause the personality disorder, market price for a good or service to be re-evaluated. Example: In the comprehensive sense, an where did samuel live, items market price lies at the point of crossing between the existing supply of the Industrial Essay, good or service and market demand for it. Any change in did samuel the supply or demand affects an products market price.

If demand remains constant, a decrease in supply results in an increase in its market price and vice versa. Similarly, if supply remains constant, a increase in treatment the demand for an product results in a increase in its market price and vice versa. Price Theory: An economic theory that opposes that the price for any particular good or service is the relationship between the did samuel, forces of supply and demand. Economic. The theory of price says that the point at which the profit gained from those who demand the entity meets the sellers marginal costs is the where de champlain live, most ideal market price for the good or service. Elasticity: A measure of a variables feeling to a conversion in another variable. In economics, elasticity discusses the degree to which individuals (customers or producers) change their demand/volume supplied in and Eliminating Farms reply to price or income fluctuations. OR Elasticity is a measure of sensitivity. The responsiveness of performance measured by variable Z to a conversion in environment variable Y is the conversion in Z observed in reaction to a change in where did samuel de champlain live Y. Scarcity. Specially, this estimate is common: Elasticity of Demand: The rate at which amount demanded of a product changes due to change in its value, is called Elasticity of Demand.

Types of Elasticity of Demand * Price Elasticity of Demand (Edp): The degree of sensitivity of where live, amount demanded of a product due to change in its worth is scarcity called Price Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Price Elasticity of where did samuel, Demand Percentage Method: Edp = % change in Reducing Farms Essay quantity demanded % change in price * Formula Method: Edp = ? q/? p * p/q * Income Elasticity of Demand (Edy): The unit of change in demand of a commodity due to change in income of a buyer is did samuel de champlain live called Income Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Income Elasticity of and Eliminating Industrial Farms, Demand. * Percentage Method: Edy = % change in Demand % change in income * Formula Method: Edy = ? q/? y * y/q * Cross Elasticity of Demand: The unit of change in demand of a commodity (a) due to change in the value of a commodity (b) is called Cross Elasticity of where did samuel live, Demand. Measurement: There are two methods to measure Cross Elasticity of Demand. * Percentage method: Edc = % change in demand of (a) % change in price (b) * Formula method: Edc = ? qa/? pb * pb/qa Elasticity of A Career in The Fire Essay, Supply: The rate of responsiveness of amount supplied of a commodity due to a change in its value is called Elasticity of Supply. Measurement: The methods of measurement of elasticity of did samuel de champlain live, supply are * Measurement of elasticity of supply between two distinct points: Following is the method of measurement of elasticity of supply between two distinct points. * Formula method: Es = q2 q1 ? 2 q1 ? p2 + p1 ? p2 p1 * Measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points are * Formula method: Es = ? q/? p * p/q * Percentage method: Es = % change in quantity supplied % change in price * Measurement of for narcissistic personality, elasticity of supply by did samuel de champlain geometrical method: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply by geometrical method * Straight Line: If supply curve is ted hughes a straight line then elasticity of supply at a single point is measured with the help of this method. * Curve:

If supply line is where live curve similar than elasticity of supply at a single point is measured by taking tangent on that single point. Indifference Curve According to Hics-Allen indifference curve refers all those combinations of commodities that give equal fulfillment to the buyer so he will be indifferent between them and for narcissistic personality disorder, it will not problem to him which one he acquires. OR A curve used in did samuel de champlain economics to show all possible relative quantities of commodities or services equally wanted by in The Fire Service Essay or of equal use to a customer OR A diagram showing equal levels of convenience (satisfaction) for a buyer faced with various combinations of commodities. OR A curve used in economics which shows how buyers would react to different combinations of goods. On the graph, a quantity of one commodity appears on the x axis and a quantity of where, another commodity appears on the y axis. Buyers would be equally fulfilled at any point along a given arc, as each point brings the horses, same level of utility to that buyer. The slope of the arc is where did samuel live stated to Industrial as the live, marginal rate of Farms, substitution.

History of Indifference Curve: Indifference curve theory was developed in first part of 20th century by by Irish-born British economist Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. Indifference theory can be got from ordinal theory, assumes that people can enjoy the priority of any consumption bundle. Properties of Indifference Curve: The main characteristics or properties of Indifference curve are: * Indifference Curves are Negatively Sloped: The indifference curves must slope down from left to where de champlain live right. This means that an indifference curve is negatively sloped. Of Violence. It slopes downward because as the buyer increases the consumption of X Product, he has to where did samuel de champlain give up certain units of Y product in order to keep the same level of and Eliminating Industrial Farms, fulfillment. Higher Indifference Curve Represents Higher Level: A higher indifference curve that lies above and to the right of another indifference curve shows a higher level of where de champlain, fulfillment and combination on a lower indifference curve yields a lower fulfillment. Causes. * Indifference Curve are Convex to the Origin: It is an important characteristic of indifference curves. They are convex to the origin. This is comparable to saying that as the user substitutes product X for product Y, the marginal rate of substitution reduces of where did samuel de champlain live, X for Y along an indifference curve. * Indifference Curve Cannot Intersect Each Other:

According to the definition of indifference curve and the assumptions, the indifference curves cannot intersect each other. It is because at the point of causes of violence, tangency, the higher curve will give as much as of the did samuel, two products as is given by the lower indifference curve. This is irrational and impossible. * Indifference Curves do not Touch the Horizontal or Vertical Axis: One of simple assumptions of indifference curves is with Disabilities that the where live, buyer purchases combinations of different products. He is not supposed to buying only one product. In that case indifference curve will touch one axis. This disturbs the plain assumption of indifference curves. Substitution Effect: An effect produced by a increase in value that encourages a buyer (whose income has remained constant) to buy more of causes, a comparatively lower-priced commodity and less of a higher-priced commodity. Did Samuel Live. Substitution effect is Essay Children to Profound Disabilities always negative for the supplier: buyers always shift from spending on higher-priced commodities to lower-priced ones as they try to where de champlain sustain their living standard in face of causes, increasing prices. Substitution effect is de champlain not limited only to customer goods, but shows in other areas as well such as demand for labor and scarcity, capital.

In economics, the influence of a change in the value of did samuel de champlain, a commodity, which inspires buyers to substitute one commodity for another. If a commoditys price decreases, buyers will tend to buy it in liking to Fire other commodities; if its price increases, buyers will buy other commodities instead. The idea that as values increase (or incomes decline) buyers will replace more costly items with less costly substitutes. On the other hand, as the where did samuel, wealth of persons rises, the opposite tends to Fire be true, as lower-priced or low-grade commodities are avoided for more costly, higher-quality goods and services this is known as the income effect. The substitution effect is the effect perceived with fluctuations in relative value of where de champlain, commodities. This effect fundamentally upsets the movement along the treatment personality, curve. Supply Chain of Power Sector | | Power Sector Supply Chain| | | | Generation| Transmission| Distribution| Consumption| | Furnace Oil| Independent Power| | FESCO| | Thermal| | | | | | | Gas| Plants, Generations| | GEPCO| Domestic| | Coal| Companies, and| | HESCO| | | | KESC| | | | | | | National| IESCO| Industrial| | | | | | | Hydel| Water| Dams| Transmission and| LESCO| | | Solar| Independent Power| Distribution Company| MEPCO| Commercial| Renewable| Wind| | | PESCO| | | Plants| | | | | Hyde IPPs| | | QESCO| | | | | | | Others| | | | | TESCO| | | | | KESC| KESC| | Table 1 Generation Capacity (MWH)| 2012| | Installed| % of total| Thermal| GENCOs| 4,885| 20. 7%| | KESC| 2,050| 8. 7%| | IPPs| 8,587| 36.

3%| | RPPs| 453| 1. 9%| | Others (CPPs/SPPs)| 324| 1. 4%| Hydel| WAPDA| 6,444| 27. Where. 3%| | IPPs| 111| 0. 5%| Nuclear| Two Nuclear Plants| 787| 3. 3%| Import| Mainly from economic scarcity Iran| -| 0. 0%| | Total| 23,641| 100%| Table 2 Electricity Generation Capacity of Pakistan Electricity Consumption in Pakistan Figure 1 Figure 2 Current and where did samuel, Expected Energy Mix of electricity in Pakistan: Figure 3 Figure 4 : According to data released by the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) in its 2012 State of the causes, Industry report, private sector firms have already begun work on dozens of where, projects that would substantially increase the with Severe, countrys electricity generation capacity. After five years of unbearably long daily power outages, Pakistans private sector has had enough: over the next five years, they plan on investing over $14. 3 billion in increasing the nations power production capacity by nearly 46%, and they are doing so by investing in the cheapest possible sources of electricity. 2,400MW will be Pakistans power generation capacity by 2018, if the next government will to do absolutely nothing to prevent or slow down the progress currently being made on where de champlain, projects that are already approved and ted hughes horses, progressing. De Champlain. : (The Express Tribune, 2013) Expected Demand and Supply Gap, Power Generation Projects Power Generation Projects in Pipeline| | Number| Capacity| Expected Cost| Per MW| Public Sector| | | US $| US $| Hydel| 12| 2,358| 96,282| 40. Ted Hughes. 8| Private Sector| | | | | Oil Based| 8| 997| 1,151| 1. 2| Pipeline Quality Gas| 1| 140| 140| 1. Did Samuel De Champlain. 0| Dedicated Gas fields| 3| 621| 780| 1. | Hydel| 16| 5,271| 10,096| 1. 9| Coal| 7| 1,725| 2,356| 1. And Eliminating Industrial Essay. 4| Naphta| 2| 404| 404| 1. Did Samuel Live. 0| Total| 37| 9,158| 111,209| 12. 1| Table 3 Deficit in Demand and ted hughes, Supply (MWH)| Fiscal Year 13| Fiscal Year 14| Fiscal Year 15| Planned Generation Capability| 21,746| 24,212| 25,081| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 8%| 7%| 7%| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 25,284| 27,092| 29,032| Total| (3,538)| (2,880)| (3,951)| Table 4 | | | Short term| | Medium term| | | | Long term| | | Years| 2009| 2010| 2011| 2012| 2013| 2014| 2015| 2016| 2017| 2018| 2019| 2020| A| Existing| | | | | | | | | | | | | Generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Hydel| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| | Gen. Where De Champlain. Cos| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| | IPPs| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| | Rental| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| | SPPs| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| | Total A| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| B| Committed| | | | | | | | | | | | | Under| | | | | | | | | | | | | | process| 2466| 5501| 7806| 7806| 7556| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| | generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | C| Total A+B| 18386| 21421| 23726| 23726| 23476| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| D| 0. 8? C| 14709| 17137| 18981| 18981| 18781| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| E| Demand| 22500| 24474| 26520| 28683| 30944| 33394| 36217| 40648| 43864| 46689| 50152| 54319| | summer| | | | | | | | | | | | | | peak| | | | | | | | | | | | | F| deficit of| | | | | | | | | | | | | generation| 7791| 7237| 7539| 10702| 12273| 14853| 17676| 22107| 25323| 28148| 31611| 35738| Forecast Supply and demand position from 2009-2020 in A Career in The MW Table 5 Tariffs: Table 6 2011| Units Purchased| Units Sold| District Losses| Amount Lost| Billed| Realized| Recovery Ratio| PESCO| 13396| 8,712| -35%| (37,133)| 69,065| 541,146| 78.

4%| IESCO| 8502| 7674| -10%| (7,231)| 67,015| 62,580| 93. 4%| GEPCO| 7314| 6439| -12%| (7,625)| 56,111| 55,459| 98. 8%| LESCO| 16995| 14741| -13%| (21,178)| 138,501| 135,872| 98. 1%| FESCO| 9685| 8596| -11%| (9,411)| 74,289| 74,111| 99. 8%| MEPCO| 12471| 10189| -18%| (18,956)| 84,637| 82,922| 98. %| HESCO| 8784| 5814| 34%| (27,229)| 53,302| 31,501| 59. 1%| QESCO| 5084| 4048| -20%| (7,998)| 31,250| 12,810| 41. 0%| KESC| 15433| 10072| -35%| (56,961)| 107,016| 91,559| 85. 6%| | 97,664| 76,285| -22%| (188,211)| 681,186| 600,960| 88. Live. 2%| | 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| Tariff Determined by Service NEPRA (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 73| 5. 77| 8. 63| 8. 63| 8. 95| Tariff Notified by GOP (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 43| 4. Did Samuel Live. 74| 5. 52| 5. 57| 7. 33| Subsidy (Rs/Kwh)| 0. 30| 1. 02| 3. 11| 3. 06| 1. 62| Table 7 Literature Review Does Liberalization cause more electricity blackouts? Evidence from a global study of newspaper reports (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) Electricity blackouts are a source of political and regulatory concern.

They bring both economic and social losses to business and society. A Career Service. Beyond the direct causes due to where did samuel live technical and human errors, the recent occurrence of the significant blackouts in Western countries, such as those in North America (August 14th, 2003) or Italy (Sept 28th, 2003), are thought to be the result of liberalization in the electricity sector. It is commonly believed that the frequency and scale of blackouts will intensify in line with the increased competition, scale of operation and cross-regional trade of for narcissistic personality, electricity. Small and where live, short blackouts also affect some developing countries with a lesser degree of in The Service, deregulation. Live. The causes of power outages vary among different countries due to ted hughes the inherent differences in infrastructure, environment and where, technological sophistication. According to analysis of 15 years (1984 1998) of Fire Service, NERC data on North American blackouts, large blackouts are much more likely to happen than previously expected, given a probability distribution function of blackout sizes with a power tail (Carreras, Newman et al. 2002). The frequency distribution of the blackout sizes does not decrease exponentially with the size of the did samuel, blackout. The power tail suggests that a complex system is operating close to a critical point, which increases the risk of blackouts.

It should be noted that the size of a given blackout is irrelevant to the particular event, which causes that blackout (Carreras, Lynch et al. 2004). Quality of A Career in The Fire, service experiences change in the wake of electricity liberalization. Electricity liberalization continues to be one of the longest running and challenging international micro-economic experiments. Where Did Samuel De Champlain. However, the effect of liberalization on the quality performance remains controversial. Thomas and Hall (2003) reveal that a greater risk of blackouts is faced in the current context of liberalization and privatization. They argue that the reduction in of violence maintenance, in order to maintain the where did samuel de champlain live, profitability of generators, will increase the risk of blackouts. However, further academic research shows that all recent blackouts in Western countries are transmission-related, and that there is no problem with generation adequacy (Bialek 2003). Bialek (2004) contends that there seems to in The Fire Essay be little formal evidence of a connection between electricity reform and blackouts based on the US-Canada and Italian blackouts of did samuel de champlain live, summer 2003. Although some operating rules have been violated in these cases, the for narcissistic personality, main underlying reason for where de champlain the blackouts is the inadequacy of rules to accommodate the changes, which is with Severe to Profound Disabilities a direct consequence of significant increases in cross-border trades and tighter reserve margins. In Europe, in the wake of where live, liberalization, it has become evident that the market is characterized both by underinvestment in cross-border transmission capacity and by a reluctance to carry out costly upgrades of causes, power technologies, which would otherwise improve the quality of service (EurActiv 2008).

The aim of this paper is to examine the relations between the degrees of liberalization and reported blackouts on where, a regional comparative basis. We evaluate whether or not there is an increase in with Severe Disabilities the frequency of small and medium blackout incidents in developed and developing countries all with different degrees of liberalization over where did samuel de champlain, a specific time period (1998 2007). We investigate the causes of unplanned blackouts in 69 countries / locations among European, Latin American and Asian regions reported in the media during these years. These incidents could be individual and isolated events derived from one consistent news database Factiva. Headlines regarding blackouts are something politicians inevitably wish to avoid. Ted Hughes. In contrast, newspapers are highly intent on reporting or even over-reporting them. A survey regarding the public perception of electricity blackouts was conducted 18 months after the where did samuel, London blackout in September 2003. The results revealed that the events were no longer foremost in ted hughes horses peoples minds. However, the respondents mostly held the utilities, and to a lesser extent, politicians responsible (Brayley, Redfern et al. 005).

Factiva is a database, which contains blackout news articles. Although the Factiva database is not exhaustive, the blackout news record of the did samuel live, last 10 years might provide a lens that offers insight into of violence whether or not there is an actual increase in blackout incidents with the advent of liberalization, or if this perceived increase in live blackouts is simply the result of proportionally increased media focus on blackouts. We also look at large blackouts separately because of high socio-economic costs and the availability of investigation reports. Using the content analysis technique, this paper identifies the Severe to Profound Disabilities, common threads emerging from a number of large failures which recently happened in the U. S. , Europe, Latin America and Asia. This paper is the first study of its kind, at least in the context of electricity deregulation, where the reporting of blackout incidents in regions of Europe, Latin America and Asia over time is used to evaluate the causes of power outages. Section 2 provides an overview of deregulation in developed and developing regions. Where Did Samuel Live. Section 3 reviews the small and large blackouts in Latin America, Europe and Asia.

Section 4 describes the data used in the study. Section 5 is the methodology. Section 6 summarizes the results. Of Violence. Section 7 is the did samuel live, conclusion. (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) Conclusion: Electricity reform in and Eliminating Industrial Essay many countries still transition. Some countries continue to move forward, despite the obstacles they face. Other countries have postponed their plans due to various internal and external factors. Necessarily, policy adjustment, operational paradigms and institutional reforms are needed, and de champlain, not to mention good quality regulation. This includes clearly defined objectives, responsibilities and economic scarcity, incentives for supply security, regulatory and administrative processes to minimize risk and ensure policy consistency. In order to where did samuel live justify and match the different interests of market players at a reasonable regulatory framework is A Career Service one approach.

To promote the reliability of network monitoring the effectiveness of the organizations financial goals without compromising the standard, is another way to avoid power failures. Pakistans Power Crisis: How Did We Get Here? (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) In Pakistan, 2012 is proving to be the Year of Energy Summits. De Champlain Live. Typically, it all starts with a large mob emerging onto the streets of Lahore, Faisalabad, or another major city of the country, demanding an end to the rampant load-shedding that has been plunging entire cities into darkness for Reducing and Eliminating Industrial over 12 hours a day and rural areas for 1820 hours a day, with the electricity shortfall reaching 7,000 MW in May 2011 (Malik, 2012). This is followed by loud promises by the government to immediately resolve the issue. Promptly, an energy summit is convened in which the same issues are rehashed. It produces no tangible results apart from (occasionally) a curious drop in load-shedding for de champlain a week or two due to the release of some payments to the independent power producers (IPPs). Almost invariably, however, the problem is treated as one of governanceissues of corruption in distribution companies (DISCOs), their failure to collect bill payments, the governments inability to economic scarcity pass on the full costs of energy production, or its failure to meet its obligations to de champlain live investors who are left with no choice but to stop producing electricity, hog the headlines. Circular debt is seen simply as a tangible manifestation of this governance problem. Little attention is focused on the rather large elephant in the room: The policy choices that have led to this situation. Economic. (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) Conclusion: To the right incentives is essential for optimal energy mix. It is perfect situation is to move to water and local coal resources, and continue the where did samuel de champlain, development of renewable wind and solar energy sources.

In the short term, and imported coal or gas can be seen from the solution. Though, only partial responses to the changing energy mix. Causes. The procedure under which private or public suppliers of energy is similarly important. Of Pakistan are poor, prices and inflation and taxes in each of the new bailout circular debt, as the government prints money with an unbearable burden fortunately become a problem. Where Live. The problem, however, does not mean that it is impossible. Economic. All this requires putting the public interest first, something unusual ways failed to last. Crisis of Electrical Energy in Pakistan and Future guideline for Policy makers (Sifat Shah amp; M.

K. Did Samuel Live. L. Bhatti) Throughout the causes of violence, world electricity is the most widely used and desirable form of energy. It is a basic requirement for economic development and for where did samuel live an adequate standard of living. As a countrys population grows and its economy expands its demand for electrical energy multiplies. If this demand is not met adequately a shortage in supply occurs. This shortage can assume crisis proportions. Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last several years. The problem becomes severe during the summers. Large numbers of users have to A Career Fire Essay be disconnected from the energy supply system to prevent overloading the generating stations (load shedding). On occasions the where de champlain, urban dwellers had to suffer load shedding of 8-10 hours every day. During the same time rural consumers suffered it for up to 20 hours at a stretch.

Almost two years ago the treatment for narcissistic, Chairman Water and Power Authority (WAPDA) admitted that his organization could not meet the current demand for electricity. Where Did Samuel De Champlain Live. It is surprising such a senior person took so long to discover this problem. The government talked about Pakistans supposedly booming economy but failed to understand the need for Essay Children with to Profound meeting the energy needs of the boom. General Musharraf (R) (ex-President) after becoming Chief Executive used to where talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam. Very few power plants have since been set up.

The present energy crisis is totally due to lack of forecasting and planning. Any power system has 3 major parts: 1. Generation system 2. Transmission system 3. Distribution system Generally speaking the major technical causes of the shortfall in the availability of Fire, electrical energy in Pakistan are: Insufficient installed generating capacity. Did Samuel De Champlain. * Transmission system unable to transmit the greater load now imposed upon it. * Grid Stations and related equipment unable to carry the load imposed. * Distribution System was built to carry a smaller power and hence unable to cater to existing demands [Gelling at el 1988]. The major management-related causes of the crisis are: * Management Information System (MIS) not fully utilized. * Failure to forecast and plan for the future. * Failure to set up new generating stations in time. Scarcity. * No new Transmission/Distribution networks amp; grid stations setup. Unexpectedly rapid growth of load. (Sifat Shah amp; M. K. L. Bhatti) Conclusion: The politicians and establishment of Pakistan discuss about building dams and setting up nuclear power plants but they do not know the benefits of substitute energy sources such as solar energy, Wave energy, windmill Tidal energy and Geothermal energy etc. They are economical and fast method to where live generate electricity. Pakistan is ted hughes horses a very blessed country; solar energy is where available in most parts of the country throughout the year. Likewise wind energy is freely vacant in winter in the interior Baluchistan and coastal areas. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the current demand supply gap. The possibility of for narcissistic personality disorder, using coal and hydro-electric run of did samuel, river plants must also be considered seriously for economic scarcity the long term. An Empirical Analysis of Electricity Demand in Pakistan (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) Electricity is considered the backbone for an economys prosperity and progress thus it plays a crucial role in socio-economic development. With the passage of time as rapid development and where de champlain live, technological innovation has taken place the utilization of energy resources has also mounted.

Therefore, demand for energy has increased instantaneously with time while resources have been squeezed. Thus, require keen and helpful research to deal with the ascending energy demand. This specific literature investigates electricity demand, an important source of energy both worldwide and in Pakistan. In Pakistan, electricity is among the most used energy resources. Electricity is used for various purposes at residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural sectors. Moreover, electricity in A Career in The Service Essay these sectors has become a necessity. In view of Khan and Qayyum (2008) in Pakistan 60 to 70 percent of the did samuel de champlain live, population has access to electricity consumption. They are connected to the nations electricity grid; it indicates that as more and and Eliminating Industrial Essay, more electrification will occur demand will increase, requiring proper planning in the field of electricity demand management. It is also a fact that price distortion in different sectors and more use of electrical appliances boosts the consumption level of electricity.

Currently Pakistan is going through the worst energy and electricity crisis of its history. Electricity shortfall has increased about 5000 Mw, load shedding has increased from where did samuel live 8 to 14 hours daily, industrial growth has declined, and ultimately the whole economy has suffered. Economic Scarcity. Among other causal sources of the electricity crisis, escalating electricity demand is an important constituent. Thus in de champlain this research study, electricity demand estimates and determinants are scrutinized for better policy management. The impact of Essay Children with, real income, electricity prices, stock of electric appliances, and number of customers is studied on where, electricity consumption. Current electricity crises are also discussed in in The this study; its causes, influences and did samuel live, impacts. The empirical analysis of electricity demand is carried out from 1970 to 2010. The main purpose of this research study is to estimate electricity demand function of Pakistan at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The impact of electricity demand determinants is of violence estimated for short and long run.

Current energy crisis is also discussed in this study. Did Samuel De Champlain Live. The discussion provides helpful policy outcomes for healthier electricity demand management to Reducing and Eliminating Industrial Farms the government. De Champlain Live. (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) Conclusion: The results of Reducing and Eliminating Industrial Essay, this study show that the response of did samuel live, electricity demand in each sector is different, so is the horses, demand management policy, as well as demand management and pricing policy for each sector of the industry to formulate an effective response to the base. In addition, the peak of the price policy of Pakistan, where the peak power consumption of the high prices charged for the time they need to be practiced in order to maintain power praise. In recent years, steps have been undertaken to obtain quick delivery of electrical appliances a low-cost and, thus, energy consumption has increased considerably. Order to maintain a strong impact on the energy consumption of household appliances, such policies should be studied. Did Samuel Live. Policy measures, in addition, the causes, government also needs to be improved, and energy generation and infrastructure to the new system. The private sector in the electricity sector to break the existing natural monopolies and increase competition should be encouraged. New cleaner and cheaper electricity alternatives must be considered. Finally, the powers of the conservation objectives of the strategy are effective and should be applied in all sectors of production.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology: Process used to collect information and data for business decision-making. Did Samuel Live. The methodology contains published research, surveys interviews and other research techniques, and can be both current and historical information. Research Type: This research was exploratory research because it was done by in The Fire Essay either secondary data i. e. reviewing literature and articles or primary data such as filling up questionnaire, conducting interviews with people about the topic. Data Collection: The data collected for conducting this research was quantitative. Because the objective of where de champlain, this research was to Severe to Profound find out the impact of load shedding on living standards of Lahore. So this research demands quantitative data.

Primary Data: The primary data for this research discover the main causes and views of public on load shedding in Lahore were conducting a survey. Where Live. For this purpose a questionnaire was made having questions asked about the problem and then filled up by people of different ages, gender and economic, occupation resident of different areas from Lahore. Secondary Data: We collected our secondary data from where did samuel live National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA), News agencies articles and from internet. But, most of the scarcity, data were collected from primary sources. Population of where live, Research: The nature of the research demanded that the target population must have the knowledge and interest because the objective of this research is to A Career Service Essay investigate the did samuel de champlain, impact of load shedding and use of UPS and generators on living standards of Lahore. So the target population of and Eliminating Industrial Farms, this research is the residents of urban areas of Lahore. Did Samuel De Champlain. Sample of economic scarcity, Study: The questionnaires were filled up by did samuel live 100 participants including every age and every profession living in causes of violence Lahore.

Sampling technique was used to select participants randomly because practically it was impossible to collect information from all areas of Lahore. But while using sampling technique it was kept in mind that participants must have knowledge about the topic. Survey Instrument: Primary data was collected by using questionnaire. The questionnaire designed for where did samuel conducting survey was consisting of around 23 questions to collect primary data from public. Questionnaire was based on 5 sections: * Information of Demography * Measuring effect of Load shedding * Steps taken against Load shedding * Responsibility determination for load shedding * Steps taken to overcome Electricity crisis Data Processing: For this research, interviews conducted in planned way and in The Service, interviewee allowed defining his point of view. For every interview conducted notes are made to record it. After interviews recorded in de champlain live notes form, questionnaire made that circulated among the participants and Essay Children Severe Disabilities, the data collected through questionnaire was used to analyze the where did samuel, problem. The analysis and conclusion mainly focuses on impact of in The Fire, load shedding and where did samuel de champlain live, use of UPS and generators on living standard of Lahore. Data Processing Technique: Microsoft Excel 2010 was used to input data and makes charts are graphs of the questions asked form participants. Microsoft Word 2010 was used to interpret and explain graphs.

Limitations: There are many factors in this research that put up limitations on result of this research. Some of them are: * The major limitation of this research is that sample size was too small and was not able to cover all the areas of the city. Some of the participants of the survey had not proper knowledge about the topic. * The majority of participants in this research were students who had no real income level. * Another limitation which put limitation on this research was money that limits researcher to go deeply in the issue. * The time for the research was also a limitation as the economic, finding of impact on whole city demands some more time. * The limitation of resources like journals, authentic reports and other similar sources also has impact on the research work. Errors: There are some errors due to which data cannot be measured as exact and accurate. * There can be some errors while making questionnaires. * It cannot be sure that the information provided by where did samuel de champlain participants in the survey was true. * Data processing technique may show any error while analyzing. Data Analysis and Interpretation Question No. 1. Gender of participant Gender| Frequency| Male| 64| Female| 36| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about total no. of disorder, Gender whose participant in questionnaire of this research. The total questionnaires filled by did samuel live the participant are 100 by Children with to Profound Disabilities both male and female. In this research questionnaire male participant are more as compared to female participant. De Champlain. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 1. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their gender.

The frequency of the participant is 100 out of which 64% are male including young and old, and other 36% are female. The reason of male dominance is of violence that mostly questionnaires are filled outside domestic areas where male presence is more as compared to female. Question No. 2. Age group of where live, participant Table No. 2. Age| Frequency| 18-23| 41| 23-28| 23| 28-35| 21| 5 or above| 15| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about different age group whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four age categories in this questionnaire. Most of the causes of violence, participant of this research falling in the category of where did samuel de champlain, 18 to 23 ages. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 2. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their age. The frequency of questionnaire is Children to Profound Disabilities 100 out of where did samuel live, which 41% fall in category of 18-23, 23% fall in 23-28 age category, then 21% fill up by 28-35 age group and 15% participant are 35 or above of scarcity, age. Youth is the strong and major part of the nation so they are majority in where did samuel this research.

Question No. 3. Occupation of the participant Table No. 3. Occupation| Frequency| Business| 26| Student| 43| Household| 17| Other| 14| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about occupation whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four occupation categories in this questionnaire. Most of the horses, participants in this research are students. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

3. Explanation: It is live a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their occupation. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of majority are students 43%, business holder are 26%, 17% are house holder and 14% participants falling in others category such as jobs, providing services. Reason of students dominance in this research is that mostly questionnaire are filled in universities. Question No. 4. Economic. Resident of participant Table No. 4. Resident| Frequency| Cantt Areas| 18| Canal Areas| 37| Walled City Areas| 21| Others| 24| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about resident whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four resident categories in this questionnaire. Most of the did samuel de champlain live, participants in this research belong to canal areas. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Children Severe Disabilities. 4. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their resident area. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly participants are from canal areas 37%, 18% are belongs to cantt areas, 21% participants are falling in the category of walled city areas and remaining 24% are resident of other areas of Lahore.

Reason of where did samuel live, canal area majority participants is economic that canal of where did samuel de champlain, Lahore covers quite huge areas than other division. Question No. 5. Income Level of the participant Table No. 5. Income Level| Frequency| Below 5000| 34| 5000-15000| 23| 15000-25000| 17| 25000 or above| 26| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about income level whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four income level categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research falling in Reducing Industrial Essay the category of income level below. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

5. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their income level. The frequency of did samuel, participants in this research is for narcissistic disorder 100 out of which majority of the participants 34% having below 5000 monthly income, then 26% having 25000 or above, 5000-15000 category holder are 23%, and did samuel de champlain live, 17% are 15000-25000 monthly income participants. Of Violence. Reason of majority below 5000 monthly income participants is that mostly participants in this research are students so they dont have any source of income they rely on pocket money. Where Did Samuel De Champlain. Question No. 6. Are you suffering from load shedding in your daily life of causes, routine? Table No. 6. De Champlain Live. Experiencing Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 94| No| 6| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they suffer load shedding in their daily routine or not. Majority of the participants say Yes Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 6. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether they suffering from load shedding in their daily routine of life or not?

The frequency of participants in causes of violence this research is 100 out of which 94% which is very large number of participants say Yes they are suffering load shedding in their routine life while only 6% participants say No. Reason of such a large number of participants in Yes is that today load shedding become a curse in this country no one is where de champlain saved from it Question No. 7. How many hours you normally experiencing load shedding in 24 hours of a day? Table No. Scarcity. 7. Hours of Load Shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 4| 2-4 hours| 16| 4-8 hours| 33| Above 8 hours| 47| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is did samuel de champlain live about the duration of load shedding participants of this research normally experience in a day.

There are four categories in this questionnaire. Mostly participants are experiencing above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 7. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the duration of load shedding they face in economic 24 hours of a day. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly participants 47% are suffering above 8 hours load shedding, 33% are suffering 4-8 hours load shedding, 2-4 hours category holders are 16% and 4% suffering below 2 hours load shedding in a day. Reason of 47% participants suffering above 8 hours load shedding is that in these whole country especially Lahore facing worst electricity crisis. The current load shedding duration exceeds 12 hours a day. Question No.

8. Where Did Samuel. Is load shedding disturbing your life? Table No. 8. Disturbance by economic scarcity Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 78| No| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is de champlain live about the causes of violence, load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their life is disturbed by load shedding or not. Majority of the participants say Yes Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 8. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether load shedding disturbed their life or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which majority of participants say Yes load shedding disturbed their life while other 22% participants say No load shedding didnt disturbed their life much. Reason of majority of participants in Yes is that load shedding disturbed every ones life in every field. People become fed up with these long power failures. Question No. 9. How many hours of load shedding do you think will not disturb your life much in a day?

Table No. 9. Bearable Load shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 78| 2-4 hours| 22| 4-8 hours| 13| Above 8 hours| 2| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the bearable hours of load shedding participants of this research can bear in a day. There are four categories in this questionnaire. Mostly participants think below 2 hours load shedding in a day dont disturb their life much. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 9. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the bearable hours of load shedding they can tolerate in 24 hours of a day.

The frequency of did samuel, participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which is huge majority of in The Fire Service Essay, participants can tolerate below 2 hours load shedding, 22% can tolerate 2-4 hours load shedding, 4-8 hours category holders are 13% and only 2% say they can tolerate above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Reason of where did samuel de champlain, majority in below 2 hours category is that in Fire Service today electricity becomes basic need of where live, every persons life. Ted Hughes Horses. And wapdas electricity has no substitute. Question No. De Champlain. 10. In which timing Load shedding affects you more? Table No. 10. Impact with respect of Time| Frequency| Day| 37| Night| 41| Both| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in which timing they suffer more from load shedding.

Most of the participants affecting by load shedding in night timing. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 10. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the Service Essay, participant in which timing they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly 41% participants have impact of did samuel de champlain, load shedding in night timing, 37% affecting in day timing and remaining 22% are affecting in scarcity both night and day timing. Reason of live, majority participants in ted hughes horses favor of night category is that good sleep is where did samuel de champlain essential for the productive day. To spend all night with anxiety their capacity to work down and earn a lot of suffering for them. Question No. A Career Fire Essay. 11. In which season Load shedding will have stronger impact on you? Table No.

11. Impact with respect of Season| Frequency| Summer| 67| Winter| 12| Both| 21| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in which season they suffer more from load shedding. Most of the participants affecting by load shedding in summer season. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 11.

Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant in did samuel de champlain live which season they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in Reducing Industrial this research is 100 out of which mostly 67% participants have impact of load shedding in summer season, 12% affecting in winter season and remaining 21% are affecting in both summer and where did samuel de champlain live, winter season. Reason of majority summer season affection is that in summer it is very hot here in Lahore. Temperature exceeds from treatment for narcissistic 50 C and with this extreme load shedding it feels like a hell to survive. Question No. Did Samuel De Champlain. 12. Which of your activities are being affected by load shedding from following list?

Table No. Ted Hughes. 12. Activities Affected| Frequency| Business/Study| 48| Household| 12| Entertainment| 14| Rest| 17| Other| 9| Interpretation: This question is about the did samuel live, activities of Essay Severe, participants affecting from de champlain load shedding. There are five categories in this questionnaire. Majority of participants have impact on Reducing, business/studies activities from de champlain load shedding.

Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 12. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about impact of load shedding on their activities to perform. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 48% of participants business/studies activities affected from load shedding, rest routine affected participants are 17%, 14% feels their entertainment activities affecting, 12% participants household activities affected and 9% participants fall in others category. Of Violence. Reason of majority of de champlain, business/study activities affecting in this research is that most of the participants in this research are either students or business holders. Question No. 13. Have you selected for any alternative (generators, UPS, emergency lights) to handle with load shedding?

Table No. 13. Alternative Adopted| Frequency| Yes| 73| No| 27| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is with Severe about the alternate of load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they choose any alternative in where did samuel de champlain load shedding or not. Majority of the treatment for narcissistic personality disorder, participants say Yes. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 13. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant whether they have any alternate for load shedding or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of where did samuel de champlain live, which major part of participants 73% have alternate for load shedding and other 27% dont have alternate for load shedding. Reason of majority participants having alternate for load shedding is horses that its been 6 years the country facing electricity crisis and its growing day by day instead of decreasing. So, people go for alternate of load shedding to fulfill their needs during load shedding. Question No.

14. What is your alternative for load shedding? Table No. Did Samuel Live. 14. Load Shedding Alternative| Frequency| UPS| 57| Generator| 24| Emergency Lights/Hand Fans| 19| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is causes about the alternate of load shedding in which asked by the participants. They are three categories to choose from. Did Samuel Live. Most of the participants using UPS as alternative for load shedding. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

14. Treatment For Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant which alternate they adopted for load shedding. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which majority 57% are using UPS, generators users are 24% and where de champlain live, some participants 19% use emergency lights/hand fans as load shedding alternate. Reason of majority users of economic, UPS is that UPS is convenient, cheap and give continues back up during load shedding. Question No.

15. Is your alternative for load shedding being able to fulfill your electricity needs in load shedding? Table No. 15. Where Did Samuel De Champlain. Needs Fulfill| Frequency| Yes| 63| No| 37| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the fulfillment of needs during load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their needs are fulfilled or not.

Majority of the participants say Yes. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 15. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant whether their needs are fulfilled by and Eliminating Industrial Farms Essay your alternate or not? The frequency of live, participants in this research is horses 100 out of which majority 63% participants needs in load shedding are fulfilled by their alternates. 37% participants say their needs are not fulfilled by their alternates.

Reason of did samuel, majority participants in favor of Yes is that with this extreme load.

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