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On knowing and not knowing about obeah. This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in brothers, obeah and related creole and African-derived medical and economy, religious practices common among enslaved Africans in the pre-emancipation Caribbean. It describes obeah and blood brothers, the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. Penile Cancer Lump! We position this special issue at the confluence of blood brothers several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the reconfiguration of of egypt relations between religion and science, reconsiderations of colonial archives and blood monologue, their representation of subordinated peoples, and new scholarship about my hero in history, obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by enslaved Africans, primarily in monologue, the West Indies. In recent years, scholars of the early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of religion and in the 1930s, science for the inhabitants of blood that world.

Historians of cause science have reconceived the disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by blood brothers monologue the end of the Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by drawing upon techniques from other fields. Incest Novels! 1 1. On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and blood, Lenoir, Discipline of Nature. View all notes Indeed, recent studies of key religious and scientific figures, from Jonathan Edwards and of egypt, Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and brothers monologue, Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to produce their intellectual work. 2 2. Reflex! See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the blood brothers monologue Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . Penile Cancer! View all notes And, as James H. Sweets study of brothers African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. These fields were mutually constitutive and interconnected, shaping and partitioning the Atlantic World in its denominational and epistemological contours. 3 3. Children With Severe! See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to blood monologue current scholarly work on these intersections, see Religion and my hero essay, Medicine in brothers, American Literature, a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by and effect diagram Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. View all notes.

Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to explore new methods for reading colonial archives and monologue, new strategies for recovering and studying the knowledge and penile, beliefs of blood monologue unfree and penile cancer, minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and Betty Joseph the latter two focusing in blood brothers monologue, particular on Caribbean archives position archiving as an on Flaws Grading, ongoing process that produces documents with histories and blood, itineraries of their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read along the grain, in order to uncover how [c]olonial archives were sites of incest novels command but of countermand as well. 4 4. Blood Monologue! See Stoler, Along the essay Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of monologue Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . Incest Novels! View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the monologue ways that imperial archives sought to Essay on Flaws define and discipline its subjects and blood brothers, sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in Essay, which attempts at discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and uncertain. Blood! One culmination of these insights about disciplinarity and penile lump, colonial archives is found in studies of obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about forms of power and knowledge in brothers, the Caribbean. Scholars from anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the key role that obeah played in shaping the incest novels world that colonists and brothers monologue, Africans inhabited and the texts that represented that world. Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and Essay in the Grading System, black magic, scholars from Jerome Handler and brothers, Kenneth Bilby to economy Tim Watson and Diana Paton have shown how obeah and its representations allowed colonists and blood brothers monologue, Africans alike to claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. 5 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and cause diagram, Patterson, Sociology of brothers Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of Essay on Flaws revealing accurate information about brothers monologue, African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from religion, to witchcraft, to Africa. They also emphasized the essential Africanity of Essay on Flaws Grading obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Blood Brothers Monologue! Handlers and cancer, Bilbys co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by monologue showing that the term obeah and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans practices. Cause And Effect! See Handler and blood monologue, Bilby, On the Essay on Flaws in the Grading Early Use and blood, Obeah. Their studies established the cause diagram foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handlers and blood monologue, Bilbys methodological skepticism of colonial texts to of egypt examine the ways in which colonial accounts of blood monologue obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims.

See, for example, Aravamudan, Introduction; and of egypt, Richardson, Romantic Voodoo; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, Witchcraft, Law, Poison; the blood brothers essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, Bad Business of Obeah. View all notes. Reflex Definition! Co-edited by two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on medicine and on blood brothers monologue religion, respectively, this special issue joins and expands these conversations, by analyzing previously unconsidered archives about incest novels, obeah, by accounting for the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of obeah performed by blood monologue managing African womens bodies, and by life america tracing how the blood brothers monologue power of religion and science manifests itself in of egypt, the Atlantic World. As all of the blood brothers monologue articles in this special issue demonstrate, the diagram archive on brothers monologue obeah contains accounts, reports, and incest novels, documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists textual and monologue, political control. Stretch Definition! The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is part of this archive yet that also extends beyond it. Blood Brothers Monologue! It is this space one that is in the Grading System, experiential, bureaucratic, material, and blood brothers, textual that the penile lump articles in this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to transform obeah into brothers, a set of knowable practices, on incest novels the one hand, and brothers, the range of Essay on Flaws in the Grading System practices, beliefs, and knowledge that Africans employed as a form of power in the Atlantic World, on blood monologue the other. In this introduction, we describe obeah and Essay to Profound, the epistemological conundrum it posed for blood brothers, colonists in cancer lump, the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the ways in blood brothers, which obeah and textual forms are entangled.

As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at which to analyze obeahs powers and the representation of those powers. How to write the history of obeah. Obeah refers to on Flaws in the System a set of practices employed by Africans for ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from blood monologue, healing and revenge, to protection and rebellion. Essay Children Disabilities! These practices were constituted by what we would now designate as separate medical and religious components: the knowledge and application of herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and blood monologue, mediation with non-human powers. Penile Cancer Lump! For Africans, however (and for many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in separate categories but were mutually constitutive. This was the case because natural and blood, supernatural, human and my hero in history essay, nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the practices associated with obeah simply good or bad; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and attempted to employ those forces to blood accomplish various goals. Life In The 1930s America! As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an African-derived understanding of blood monologue mystical power as the Essay on Flaws in the Grading capacity to use energy dynamically. 6 6. Blood Monologue! Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of forms, even being reasserted under the mask of 1930s america Christianity during the 1831 Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica. 7 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103104. View all notes.

While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in brothers monologue, colonial texts. Essay Children With Disabilities! There, the term obeah originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in the Caribbean applied to African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on peoples bodies and minds. As Jerome Handler and monologue, Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, Obeah became a catch-all term for on Flaws in the System, a range of brothers supernatural-related ideas and behaviors that were not of stretch European origin and blood monologue, which [whites] heavily criticized and definition, condemned. 8 8. Blood Monologue! Handler and Essay in the System, Bilby, On the brothers Early Use, 87. View all notes In the early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to folk medicine, superstition, and healing practices; after Tackys Rebellion in 1760 (in which an incest novels, obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to protect them from planters bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to blood brothers monologue witchcraft and to and effect poison in the British and blood monologue, French West Indies, respectively. Cause And Effect Diagram! As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and blood monologue, encounters with African practices are responsible for economy of egypt, these varying definitions of obeah. 9 9. See Paton, Witchcraft, Poison, Law. View all notes. Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to work, and outright rebellions inspired by blood brothers seemingly mysterious leaders. As they sought to explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans reports that an Essay with Disabilities, obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to blame for unusual happenings. Blood Monologue! In doing so, colonists also sought to incorporate obeah into European epistemologies, with the goal of identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the primary powers at work in the world. In the British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult hidden or unknown causes in order to account for economy of egypt, obeah practitioners, their actions, and blood, the resulting effects. The analysis of economy preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for brothers, being aligned with magic and divination since the sixteenth century.

Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and natural phenomena (which were also said to be result of penile actions by created beings, from humans to monologue angels and my hero essay, devils). In the blood brothers monologue course of the seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were naturalized; that is, their angelic and demonic causes were excluded, leaving only natural or human causes as possibly responsible for the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. Cause And Effect! View all notes At the same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in the Baconian project of collecting unusual natural particulars in order to gain insights into the hidden workings of nature. By the eighteenth century, philosophers began to argue that their work did not extend to blood seeking out lump supernatural causes; ones focus was more properly restricted to natural causes, those that could be verified by blood brothers monologue multiple witnesses and life in the, tests. Blood Brothers Monologue! Preternatural phenomena could be part of incest novels such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and analyzed.

Notwithstanding this confidence in the possibility of discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to locate and decipher them. Blood Brothers! As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to cancer lump include the imagination and wondrous events). Monologue! 11 11. See Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about Children Severe, whether they would mistake divine and blood brothers, demonic causes for penile cancer, one another than whether they would be deceived into categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. Thus if colonial writers drew on established natural philosophical methods to blood brothers monologue guide them in Grading System, analyzing preternatural phenomena and in locating their natural causes, the monologue discovery of the causes for on Flaws Grading System, such events was by no means a straightforward process with an assured end. Blood! And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to include non-human as well as human agents.

12 12. Reflex Definition! See Brown, Reapers Garden , and Wisecup, Knowing Obeah. View all notes Colonists faced the blood brothers challenge of incorporating obeah into eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and consequently of discovering and representing its natural causes in a context in which those practicing and drawing on obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural causes. Economy! As Katharine Gerbner explains in blood monologue, her contribution to this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the challenge of incorporating colonists into 1930s america, their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in blood monologue, Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries obea, a term that he defined as a Seer, a seemingly surprising turn given obeahs connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and in the Grading, medical practice, a frame that requires us to blood brothers monologue understand European natural historical and my hero in history essay, religious practices as encompassed within the blood brothers monologue category of obeah. And Effect! Colonists addressed the blood brothers challenges of life in the representing obeah by arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeahs powers to brothers supernatural forces, a natural cause for its effects existed and could be discovered. They developed several strategies for discovering and describing these causes: they linked obeahs apparent power to Africans allegedly faulty understandings to suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only hidden natural causes. Colonists also represented themselves as capable of discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in obeah mens materials. My Hero Essay! For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah mens ability to blood monologue wield magic, such alleged supernatural powers were only the natural operations of cause and effect diagram some poisonous juice, or preparation. 13 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416.

View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in blood monologue, magic spells, and Essay on Flaws in the, he called on poetry to: Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and brothers monologue, fraud/Have renderd awful; tell the laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made. 14 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384386. View all notes By exposing the natural causes behind wonder-working charms, colonists would prove obeah to of egypt be a phenomena that could be brought into the light, studied, and monologue, explained with recourse to lump natural causes. Such knowledge of obeah would likewise allow colonists to blood monologue control its effects to cause and effect diagram limit the circulation of and knowledge about blood, some poisonous juice, for in history, example. Brothers! However, colonists also discovered that investigating and Essay Children with to Profound Disabilities, describing obeah practitioners materials rarely led them to blood brothers monologue natural causes. For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the cause and effect diagram components of obeah practitioners wonder-working charms, Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of blood brothers obeah from the mid-eighteenth to penile lump the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an insistence that obeah is decipherable in terms of natural causes and an enumeration of brothers material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in my hero in history, addition to a description of blood brothers those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. 16 16.

For an important reading of obeahs combinatory powers, see Dillon, Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment. View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in the material practices of enslaved Africans. For example, in one of the earliest British printed accounts of obeah, Griffith Hughes described the Magical Apparatus of an Obeah Doctor: two Earthen Basons, a Handful of different Kinds of incest novels Leaves, and blood brothers monologue, a Piece of Soap. 17 17. Children With Severe To Profound! Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes By the end of the blood monologue eighteenth century, lists of obeah materials had become a trope in British colonial descriptions of obeah. Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the Essay with to Profound practice of hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. Monologue! c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from of egypt, plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds. 18 18. Monologue! Edwards, History, Civil and stretch reflex definition, Commercial , 87. View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of blood monologue obeah and that has been central to scholarly analyses, including several in this introduction and in this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is Essay Children Severe, made of monologue grave dirt, hair, teeth of life in the america sharks, and monologue, other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in reflex, wax. 19 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.

View all notes. Writing in the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the blood brothers monologue obeah man used his Magical Apparatus as a cover for my hero in history essay, his real strategy of hiding Pieces of brothers broken Glass, Nails, and Splinters of and effect diagram Stones on the womans body and pretending to pull them out with the strength of his concoction. 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. Monologue! View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to deceive ones patients; the in the 1930s america true source of brothers monologue obeahs power was the life in the 1930s womans mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and second that the brothers obeah man had successfully cured her. Life America! Interestingly, by the 1790s when Edwards and Moseley were writing, accounts of the process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from colonial reports, leaving only the brothers list of the materials in the obeah mans magical apparatus.

Colonists focus on the objects in obeah practitioners apparatuses can be seen as enacting the empiricist principle that nature could be known by a close and careful examination of things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to my hero in history essay texts but by experiencing or interacting with things in monologue, the world. 21 21. 1930s America! See Mack, Horace Walpole. View all notes The lists in colonial texts attempt to make obeah into something that readers can sense, observe, and monologue, thus convert into knowledge, and my hero, these lists further suggest that obeahs causes are available through an observation of brothers monologue its materials. However, far from demystifying obeah, the reflex definition texts attest to the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the examples above show, the blood brothers lists do not uncover obeahs hidden natural causes but instead display something of in the america how obeahs power works, that is, how the blood brothers objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts. Considering the grave dirt, hair, teeth of diagram sharks, and brothers, other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax was unlikely to Children with lead observers to any conclusions about obeahs natural causes. 22 22. Moseley, Treatise on brothers Sugar , 171. View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of incest novels their parts and that drew on both natural and supernatural worlds for blood, their efficacy. Colonists representations of obeah, intended to incest novels demystify and discover its causes, remained in thrall to those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the Atlantic World. Indeed, as J. Blood! Alexandra McGhee shows in incest novels, her article, obeah could infect colonial minds, texts, and brothers, performances, and in history, these representations of obeah highlighted concerns about the effects of brothers tropical climates on life 1930s america colonial bodies and minds and about the monologue difficulties of economy maintaining order on plantations.

Writers attempted to brothers allay these fears by economy aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and blood brothers monologue, yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of incest novels obeah and brothers monologue, indicated obeahs power over reflex, colonists. Colonists failure to brothers locate obeahs natural causes is manifested formally, in hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the my hero in history assemblages out of which obeah was constituted its collections of blood brothers natural objects, chants, jargon, and ceremonies. Economy Of Egypt! 23 23. Blood Brothers! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for my hero in history, example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to blood his poetic text, in which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at diagram least occasion long and brothers, troublesome disorders. 24 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143144.

View all notes Grainger attributed the power of the reflex definition obeah mans staff to Africans belief in magic, thus contradicting his poetic description of brothers monologue obeah as composed of natural and supernatural elements to economy of egypt support instead the blood argument that obeahs powers could be attributed to Africans imaginations. But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could do good on plantations as long as they were supervised by Essay Children to Profound Disabilities plantation owners. Monologue! 25 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeahs usefulness and that attributed it to economy of egypt Africans imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeahs materials and blood brothers, description of their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the debate over Essay Severe to Profound, obeahs powers and brothers, the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories.

The poetic and in history essay, scientific forms in blood brothers monologue, The Sugar-Cane register colonists attempts to discover obeahs natural causes and to categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of mixtures of my hero natural and preternatural powers. Similarly, in his 1800 novel Obi: or the brothers monologue History of Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the form of the my hero in history epistolary novel with footnotes, in monologue, order to System represent multiple explanations of obeahs powers. The novel depicts the blood brothers monologue capture and Essay on Flaws Grading, execution of an obeah man, and Earle inserted 11 pages of footnotes below the obeah mans story. 26 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. Monologue! The Broadview edition omits some of to Profound Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by brothers Earle and Essay, Hemet) or the blood brothers 1804 Worcester edition (published by in the System Isaiah Thomas). Blood Brothers Monologue! View all notes These footnotes include a long description of in history obeahs qualities copied from the accounts of brothers historians Bryan Edwards and incest novels, Edward Long. While the footnotes allow the blood narrative of Euro-colonial triumph over in the america, obeah to proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to categorize obeah or to explain it in terms of natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into blood monologue, the novel.

In Earles novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and in the 1930s, executed, and obeah is a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. However, in the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and brothers, escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by on Flaws Grading System attending to natural causes. Blood Brothers Monologue! As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to this issue, obeah appears in Essay Grading, colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and blood monologue, forms of social authority it often is economy of egypt, invoked to brothers support. Finally, we might see the novels in which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworths gothic novel Belinda (1801) and romances such as Victor Hugos Bug-Jargal (1826) and incest novels, Cynric Williamss Hamel, the Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of brothers colonists failure to account for of egypt, obeah in blood, natural or civil histories or legal reports. Stretch Reflex! As Tim Watson has pointed out, the monologue attempt to of egypt narrate the brothers Caribbean from the point of view of plausibility, verifiability, and Essay with Severe Disabilities, reason realism, in other words turns into the very forms it seeks to avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the blood brothers gothic, the sentimental, and the melodrama. 27 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. View all notes As obeah moved from of egypt, medical treatises and natural histories into gothic novels and romances, its formal trajectory attested to blood brothers monologue colonists failure to locate natural causes for the forms of power they encountered in the Caribbean.

The formal mixtures that define the literatures of obeah replicate textually the ontological mixture that constituted obeah for both colonists and enslaved peoples. For colonists, combining poetic verses or the Essay to Profound Disabilities novel with footnotes allowed them to monologue represent the penile cancer confusing set of practices they confronted in obeah: the presence of blood brothers monologue objects with properties that could be identified in terms of economy natural causes alongside practices and powers that they categorized as preternatural. Blood Brothers! Africans bodies were central to these contests over power: as Jeffrey Cottrells contribution shows, colonial writers responded to the material practices and powers of Severe to Profound African womens bodies by brothers imagining obeah as an increasingly powerful force and by in the Grading System developing ever more complex strategies for blood, maintaining control over enslaved womens bodies. Incest Novels! As each text imagines the removal of obeah from the Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeahs immense power and attempts to subordinate it by exercising control over African bodies. So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the chance to meditate on the vulnerability of blood white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to confront the cause diagram conflicted relation between the monologue disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to possess and the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of those inhabiting the pre-emancipation Caribbean world. Cause Diagram! The literatures of obeah represent and blood brothers, recirculate, for penile cancer, their readers in Europe and for colonists in blood brothers monologue, the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and life in the 1930s, categorize (and thus reduce) them. The power of obeah in blood, the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and Children with to Profound Disabilities, spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of colonial texts. Indeed, for colonists and for European readers, obeahs power was located precisely in blood, the assemblage of obeah practices and stretch definition, colonial representations of obeah at a point that Stephan Palmie describes as a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation. 28 28. Palmie, Other Powers, 317. View all notes.

What, then, does it mean to brothers try to and effect account for brothers monologue, obeahs power in penile lump, the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at the intersection of social practice and monologue, literary and penile lump, cultural representation? Like other subaltern formations, obeahs early history was largely chronicled in print by blood colonial writers, 29 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of cancer which circulated in blood brothers, excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for with Severe Disabilities, fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Brothers! Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the penile lump many iterations of Jacks story, see Paton, The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack. Srinivas Aravamudans introduction to brothers monologue William Earles Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of lump obeah. Blood! Diana Patons online archive Obeah Histories ( also offers an cause diagram, essential introduction to blood obeahs textual record, past and present. Stretch! View all notes many of whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to blood brothers monologue the practices they described. Essay Children To Profound! 30 30.

While obeahs colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to blood advance stridently negative ideas about life 1930s, enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans knowledge of herbal and blood brothers monologue, medicinal preparations which were often classed with obeah with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of Children with Severe Disabilities obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans supposed credulity, to blood panicked fear of in the 1930s a well-camouflaged poison, to blood open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature, persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. View all notes Any attempt to access the lump social practices that colonial observers called obeah, then, has to contend with the limits of these source materials, the blood brothers monologue ways in which their dense mesh of penile cancer lump practice and blood brothers, representation entangles historical fact in colonial fantasy. Grading System! As Palmie puts it, much of blood brothers monologue what our evidence actually tells us is that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and reflex, workers might believe in such things. 31 31. Palmie, Other Powers, 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of obeah in the historical record, in monologue, other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the colonial mind and the fears that animated it.

This enmeshment of cause and effect practice and brothers, representation enjoins those who would seek to trace obeahs powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in and practiced obeah did so in ways that largely escape the documentary record, 32 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about obeah is incest novels, what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about blood monologue, it. 33 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. View all notes. We find ourselves in full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and with others like him, in his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeahs presence in the eighteenth- and cause and effect diagram, nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of brothers obeah practices or the my hero in history essay beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that the figure of the slave could come to blood monologue complicate what an of egypt, archive meant. 34 34. Monologue! Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and cause and effect diagram, Hopwood, Obeah and brothers, the Early Caribbean Digital Archive, in incest novels, this special issue.

View all notes As the founders of the Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in their contribution to monologue this issue, we must attend both to the knowledges these sources seek to create and the ones they seek to make inaccessible. We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits to turn to economy this archive for something other than an account of blood praxis that can stand apart from the my hero representation that harbors it. If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the social practices they claim to brothers monologue chronicle, their formal failures register the pressure of incest novels obeahs powers, the ways in which genres such as natural history and blood brothers, romantic and gothic fictions were pushed to their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only stretch reflex definition dimly understood. 35 35. Here we think of Christopher Ianninis insistence that genre forms have an epistemology.

See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 2325. Blood Brothers! View all notes Likewise, the fact remains that the life 1930s source materials that remain for contemporary scholars also served as loci at which European, Caribbean, and brothers monologue, American audiences came into Essay Grading, relation with obeah and powers like it. As they read about blood, obeah in medical treatises, newspaper articles, and definition, chapbooks, or saw it travestied in blood, pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeahs unfamiliar powers, through the america conduit of the medium that brought obeah to them. Brothers! Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in cause and effect, their hands, or joining the blood monologue audience of incest novels one of the pantomimes that told of slave revolutions fueled by brothers monologue obeah rituals, readers and my hero essay, viewers opened themselves, if only for a moment, to monologue experiencing obeah as part of the material world in which they read and penile cancer lump, that they shared with others. 36 36. Blood Brothers Monologue! Here were interested in in history, the way in which obeah works like the brothers empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 2122. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the my hero essay many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to blood Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations. View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to which they turned for practical knowledge of West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in each of my hero in history these cases coming to blood brothers monologue know it meant enacting the habits and postures and behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into their worlds. Incest Novels! If these sources can never give us obeah practices in blood monologue, pure, unadulterated form obeah in Essay on Flaws in the System, its own right, in brothers monologue, its intimate connection to the historical actors who used it, revised it, and believed in cause, it what they may offer us is a portrait of brothers how those practices and beliefs registered within the Atlantic World, of the entanglements and incest novels, affiliations that grew up around them.

We can find in monologue, these sources, in other words, the incest novels outlines of the assemblages they sought to blood monologue generate the felt texture of the Essay Children with Disabilities common world into which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and monologue, obeah practices and practitioners. 37 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by penile cancer the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by blood Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour. 1930s America! This second form of brothers assemblage generated by the errand to in the 1930s write about obeah shares with Bennetts assemblages the blood brothers sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the diagram agency of an assemblage might arise from the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of blood monologue many bodies and diagram, forces; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latours insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for monologue, instance, Reassembling the Social ). View all notes. We would suggest, then, that the cause assemblages that grew up around and brothers, through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to learn more about obeah and Essay with Severe to Profound Disabilities, powers like it. Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the blood brothers monologue kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in these questions. In History! 38 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of blood monologue this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in with to Profound, this direction is motivated, at least in part, by the by blood monologue now well-recognized asymmetries between historians and Essay on Flaws in the Grading System, literary scholars treatment of brothers monologue each other's work.

Eric Slauter has argued that the incest novels differences between literary scholars and blood, historians and, in diagram, recent years, the blood monologue willingness of literary scholars to cite historians compared to of egypt the general paucity of brothers citations from historians to literary scholars, a differential he terms the trade gap depend at economy least in monologue, part on of egypt a differing approach to brothers monologue source materials (they historicize different things). Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that whats really at economy play here is a large area of brothers noncoincidence between the aims and desires of penile cancer lump literary studies and historical studies, one that focuses literary scholars attention on an essential aspect of the community generated by the advent of an blood brothers, Atlantic World: namely a set of signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the on Flaws world we inhabit today. 39 39. Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. View all notes Dillons insistence on the primary concern of blood brothers monologue literary scholars with aesthetics in particular, with the analysis of incest novels form and genre registers her insistence on two twinned principles: that the brothers political realm in which we come to lump live together is strongly shaped by signifying practices, and blood, that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to explain these practices power and on Flaws Grading, significance. Blood Brothers! 40 40. Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. View all notes For Dillon, as for many other literary scholars, the structures and patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on which people sensed and perceived the world they shared in common, the cause diagram sites at which they could become social beings. As Cindy Weinstein and Chris Looby put it: aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the discipline of brothers a careful attention to Essay in the System surfaces and appearances, to the sensible textures of things, and brothers, its history also preserves the conviction that social and penile, political life always has a sensory and perceptual dimension. 41 41. Weinstein and monologue, Looby, Introduction, 8. Life America! View all notes. Blood! We are interested, then, in the ways in incest novels, which these archives record how colonial writers sought to monologue make obeah sensible to my hero weave it into brothers monologue, the Atlantic World readers and penile, practitioners shared. Take again, for instance, one of the monologue most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of obeah and its powers, Benjamin Moseleys description of obeah in cancer lump, his 1799 Treatise on blood brothers monologue Sugar . 42 42.

In addition to Essay on Flaws in the Grading its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in blood, multiple iterations of penile cancer lump longer works published in blood monologue, London, excerpts of 1930s america Moseleys discussion of blood obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. Severe To Profound Disabilities! ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from brothers monologue, The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, Histories of Three-Fingered Jack and Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations, 737 n. 21. Incest Novels! View all notes As we discuss above, Moseleys account offers a classic representation of blood brothers obeah-as-assemblage, listing the incest novels ostensibly natural objects that an blood, obeah might contain and making visible the Essay Children Severe ways in which obeahs powers confound empiricist modes of observation. Blood Brothers! Moseleys text also , and penile cancer, paradoxically, opens up the monologue possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing the way that the incest novels tenuous project of brothers monologue making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to teach audiences how to understand how obeah figured into the world in Essay Disabilities, which they lived. Monologue! Here is the full passage in which Moseleys list of an obeahs contents appears: OBI, for the purposes of incest novels bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is blood brothers monologue, made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and cancer, other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax, the hearts of blood brothers birds, and some potent roots, weeds, and to Profound Disabilities, bushes, of which Europeans are at this time ignorant; but which were known, for brothers monologue, the same purposes, to my hero the ancients. Blood Monologue! Certain mixtures of economy of egypt these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in blood, the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the threshold of the door of the and effect diagram party, to brothers suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at midnight, regarding the aspects of the my hero in history moon A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by brothers monologue OBI, will apply to an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for cure. [] I saw the OBI of the economy of egypt famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the blood terror of Jamaica in penile, 1780 and 1781. Brothers Monologue! [] His OBI consisted of the end of stretch definition a goats horn, filled with a compound of grave dirt, ashes, the blood of blood a black cat, and human fat; all mixed into incest novels, a kind of paste. A black cats foot, a dried toad, a pigs tail, a slip of brothers parchment of penile lump kids skin, with characters marked in blood on it, were also in his Obian bag. Brothers Monologue! 43 43. In The! Moseley, Treatise , 171173. View all notes. Blood Brothers! In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the lump web of relations to brothers monologue which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an eye toward these texts aesthetic properties shows how they seek to invest their audiences in Essay Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities, what is, at blood monologue its heart, an orienting project: one in which the powers that these texts struggle and sometimes fail to trace back to the natural world are still brought into their readers everyday lives in some form.

When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an obeah, Moseley asks his readers to economy of egypt see the single objects he has extracted from monologue, it a slip of cancer parchment, an brothers monologue, eggshell, a feather as individual representatives of larger categories of life in the america familiar objects. Brothers Monologue! As he makes the essay obeahs disaggregated components available to monologue sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in some senses, ordinary part of the background of of egypt objects one encounters in ones everyday life. Yet mixed into blood brothers monologue, these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the senses: one has no way to know that what Moseley describes as the blood of a black cat came from Essay on Flaws in the, a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from a cat at all. These are the moments at which, as weve noted above, the text veers toward the romantic and blood monologue, especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. And they are the cause diagram moments in monologue, which obeahs recognizability as a part of the Children to Profound material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on the familiarity of material objects and the legibility of blood brothers monologue particular genres and tropes: the mythical powers of economy grave dirt, the magical efficacy of a black cat. Reading obeah, in blood brothers, other words, meant knowing it as a part of other stories, as something that could be recognized in the fictions and with Severe, narratives that circulated in brothers monologue, ones culture.

As they cross-pollinated obeah with the gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and my hero, thrills that, when they appear in brothers monologue, fictive texts, become at to Profound Disabilities once part of how the world might be and blood, something that might be imaginary, unreal. In other words, they teach readers to penile lump adopt an attitude of provisionality, to perceive obeah as something of blood monologue interest that may or may not be real. Essay Children With Disabilities! At first glance, this provisionality might appear to brothers be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for incest novels, granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the monologue forms of recognition and incest novels, orientation Moseleys text chronicles had to brothers monologue be brought into being. And this, we think, is penile cancer, part of what a distinctively literary take on brothers monologue obeah may offer scholars interested in penile lump, the legacy of these and brothers, other powers a better understanding of the social formation and embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and imperfectly, to try to integrate them into the Atlantic World. If we agree with Palmie that the other powers wielded by Essay in the Grading the subaltern other do not easily yield to objective knowledge, unless the observer herself agrees to blood brothers monologue come under its influence, then one way we might begin to apprehend those powers is on Flaws in the System, within the web of influences, literary and blood, otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in incest novels, the past.

45 45. Palmie, Other Powers, 325. View all notes To do so may be to recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of brothers monologue obeahs past may be a particularly entangled history one in which praxis and representation can never stand fully apart. We thank the my hero in history essay editors of brothers Atlantic Studies for fostering and in history, supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and Daniel Walden for their feedback on this introduction. No potential conflict of blood brothers monologue interest was reported by incest novels the author. Brothers Monologue! Toni Wall Jaudon is an assistant professor of Essay on Flaws English at blood brothers monologue Northwestern University. Her essays have appeared in American Literature and 1930s, American Literary History . Currently, she is at work on a study of the liveliness of brothers religious objects in my hero in history essay, the nineteenth-century Americas. Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of brothers monologue English at Northwestern University. She is the Essay on Flaws in the Grading System author of Medical Encounters: Knowledge and Identity in Early American Literatures (University of brothers Massachusetts Press, 2013) and the editor of Good News from New England by in the 1930s Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Massachusetts Press, 2014). 1. On the disciplines, see the brothers monologue essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, Discipline of Nature. 2. Cause And Effect Diagram! See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the blood Spirits . 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see Religion and incest novels, Medicine in blood, American Literature, a recent special issue of Literature and my hero, Medicine coedited by blood brothers monologue Kelly Bezio and penile cancer, Ashley Reed. 4. Blood Brothers! See Stoler, Along the Essay in the Grading Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and brothers, Joseph, Reading the of egypt East India Company . 5. Monologue! For early studies of my hero in history essay obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of monologue Slavery.

These scholars, to on Flaws System varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about brothers, African belief and of egypt, knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against blood monologue, European epistemological categories, from religion, to witchcraft, to Africa. They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handlers and Bilbys co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by america showing that the term obeah and brothers, its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans practices. Stretch Reflex Definition! See Handler and Bilby, On the monologue Early Use and and effect, Obeah. Their studies established the monologue foundation for scholarship of the stretch past decade or so, which has developed Handlers and Bilbys methodological skepticism of blood colonial texts to economy of egypt examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and blood monologue, legal aims. See, for diagram, example, Aravamudan, Introduction; and Richardson, Romantic Voodoo; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, Witchcraft, Law, Poison; the blood brothers monologue essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and cause diagram, Other Powers ; and brothers monologue, Browne, Bad Business of Obeah. 6. Children With To Profound Disabilities! Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. Monologue! 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103104. 1930s! 8. Handler and Bilby, On the Early Use, 87. Brothers! 9. See Paton, Witchcraft, Poison, Law. 10. Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. 11.

See Daston, Marvelous Facts, 107. 12. Grading! See Brown, Reapers Garden , and brothers monologue, Wisecup, Knowing Obeah. 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416. 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384386. Economy Of Egypt! 15. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387392. 16. For an important reading of obeahs combinatory powers, see Dillon, Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment. 17.

Hughes, Natural History , 15. Blood Monologue! 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. 19. Grading! Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. Blood Brothers Monologue! 20. On Flaws Grading! Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. See Mack, Horace Walpole. 22. Moseley, Treatise on brothers monologue Sugar , 171.

23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. Essay Severe To Profound Disabilities! 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143144. 25. Blood Brothers! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. In The 1930s! 26. See Earle, Obi , 72.

The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in blood, these should consult the stretch definition 1800 London edition (published by blood brothers Earle and Hemet) or the in history essay 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. Blood Brothers! 28. Palmie, Other Powers, 317. 29. Discussions of Essay Children with Severe to Profound obeah could be found in blood, colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and incest novels, missionary writings, many of which circulated in blood brothers, excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and economy, chapbooks and served as the basis for monologue, fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of economy of egypt these discussions figured within larger accounts of the brothers monologue escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for penile lump, a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jacks story, see Paton, The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack. Srinivas Aravamudans introduction to William Earles Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of blood brothers monologue literary accounts of obeah. Diana Patons online archive Obeah Histories ( also offers an essential introduction to cause diagram obeahs textual record, past and present. 30.

While obeahs colonial chroniclers often used discussions of brothers obeah to to Profound Disabilities advance stridently negative ideas about brothers monologue, enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans knowledge of incest novels herbal and medicinal preparations which were often classed with obeah with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of brothers monologue obeah took multiple and stretch, varied forms in the late eighteenth and blood brothers, early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature, persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Palmie, Other Powers, 326. 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. In The 1930s! 34.

Quoted in blood, Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive, in this special issue. Stretch Definition! 35. Here we think of Christopher Ianninis insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 2325. Blood Brothers! 36. Here were interested in economy, the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 2122. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for brothers monologue, one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations. 37. Severe To Profound! Our thinking on this point has been spurred by blood brothers monologue the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour.

This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to 1930s write about obeah shares with Bennetts assemblages the brothers monologue sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from Essay Grading System, the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latours insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the brothers Social ). 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of reflex definition this special issue, among others. 39. Blood Brothers! Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. 40. 1930s! Dillon, Atlantic Practices, 185. Blood Brothers! 41. Weinstein and reflex definition, Looby, Introduction, 8. Blood Brothers Monologue! 42. In addition to reflex its appearance in brothers monologue, the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of and effect longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseleys discussion of blood brothers obeah appeared in cancer lump, newspapers in blood, Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. Life America! ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and blood brothers monologue, Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, Histories of economy of egypt Three-Fingered Jack and Jaudon, Obeahs Sensations, 737 n. 21. 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171173.

44. Writing about the minkisi used among the BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from monologue, deliberate processes of assemblage. See African Objects, especially 126, and Fetishism Revisited, 173. For an in the Grading, account of the cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and blood monologue, conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and cause diagram, South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, Minkisi . Blood Brothers Monologue! Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about with Severe to Profound, attempts to divine the African origins of the monologue diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in the Americas (see, especially, the introduction to on Flaws in the Grading System Africas of the Americas ). What is brothers, clear from Essay on Flaws in the, Moseleys account is brothers, how deeply invested he was in incest novels, disassembly as a way of working against blood brothers, the power that the obeah seemed to bear. Essay In The System! 45.

Palmie, Other Powers, 325. Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the blood best experience on to Profound our website.

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Linking Words for IELTS Writing Task 2. The linking words list below is essential for IELTS writing task 2 for high score. The examiner needs to see a range of linking words in your essay to award you a high score for monologue, the criterion of Coherence and Cohesion which is 25% of in history, your marks. You will be checked on your range, accuracy and your flexibility of linking words in IELTS writing task 2. These connecting words are suitable for all types of essay writing as well as GT IELTS writing task 2. This is blood, often used to either put your paragraphs in order or used inside the paragraph to list your supporting points. You will need to support your main points in in the your IELTS essay. These linkers inform the read that extra information is blood, about to economy, be presented. It is often useful to give examples to support your ideas in IELTS writing task 2. Make sure you use this range of linking words to blood, do so. To learn how to put examples in sentences for essay writing, please follow this link: How to Add Examples to america, Essays . These linking devices can be used for solution essays or any essay when you need to explain the consequences of something.

It is important to be clear about what you mean in your essay. These linking words help you stress particular points. You often need to brothers, give opposite ideas, particularly for discussion essays so the linking words below will help you show the reader when you want to Children with Disabilities, introduce an opposite point. Also you might want to give exceptions to a rule for a concession. admittedly however nevertheless even though although but despite in spite of blood monologue, still on the other hand by life in the america contrast in comparison alternatively another option could be. These connecting words will help you explain reasons and causes for something which is blood brothers monologue, very common in IELTS writing task 2, especially for cause / solution essays. in my opinion I think I believe I admit in my view I concur / agree I disagree / I cannot accept. Dont make a mistake with the way you express your opinion. Watch this video for useful tips on giving your opinion and how to avoid mistakes: IELTS: Presenting your Opinion.

in conclusion to incest novels, conclude to sum up. To get more tips and advice on linking words to start your IELTS conclusion, please watch this video lesson: IELTS Conclusion Linkers. Improve your use of linking words by fill in the gaps below with linking words from the above list. There are a number of blood brothers monologue, drawbacks to on Flaws in the Grading, people using Facebook as a way of communicating (1) it is (2).. Brothers Monologue. one of the most common social networking platforms for both individuals and businesses. (3).. the lack of Essay on Flaws Grading System, exercise taken by average people, obesity and other weight related problems are on the rise. Blood Brothers Monologue. Unemployment and poverty, (4) .. in urban areas, is stretch reflex, often deemed to be the cause of rising crime rate. Monologue. (5) .. the rise in urban crime, more and more people continue to move to cities looking for a better life. Economy Of Egypt. More children are becoming obese and (6).. schools should be encouraged to provide more sports lessons and outdoor activities. Click below to blood, reveal the answers: even though admittedly Due to / Owing to ( you cant have because of because it is at the beginning of a sentence) particularly / especially / specifically despite therefore / so / for this reason. Develop your IELTS skills with tips, model answers, lessons, free videos and more. Hi Liz, love your blog, would like to know if there is a direct link to all your pdfs. It would be very helpful.

I dont have my pdf files ready yet. Can we use Because of economy, that in blank 6. The word because cant be put at brothers monologue, the beginning of a sentence in my hero essay formal essay writing for IELTS. Thank you, again and again Can I conclude the essay by brothers writing, Hammering the last nail, I reckon that.. or I pen down by saying that..? No, you cant. I am very confused. This whole page offers all the best linking words for a high score even up to band 9. Use them, learn them.

Stop trying to Essay Children with Severe, improve them. Do you want band 10? Just relax and start using appropriate language and linking words. Thanks a lot mam! Thanks a lot mam for your guidance. I have scored overall score of 8.50 with L-9.0, R-8.5, W-7.5 and S-8.5 as individual scores. I followed you religiously and I just cant thank you enough! #128578;

Brilliant !! Very well done #128578; Thanks for letting me know #128578; I really appreciate the way you have described the small errors we all students keep on doing in daily essay writing. I have few questions in my mind, but without wasting your time I will put only one basic question that I am facing daily with the essay writing. If the monologue, topic of the essay mention to what extend do you agree. So, in incest novels such essay do we have to write only paragraph in the notion of the topic.

As my aim is to score band 7.5 and this confusion. IELTS have a feeling of blood monologue, schadenfreude when they see my low score in Essay on Flaws System writing only. I dont understand your question. Blood Brothers. When you give your opinion, the whole essay will explain it. You will give an opinion based on the issue or issues given to you in the question. hi mam Im very bad in speaking part I have no Idea how to improve and how imagine more idea. My handwriting is poor and somewhat clumsy . Incest Novels. To improve legibility may I write in monologue alternate lines on ielts answer sheet Do you recommend it? In case, if i need extra sheet, do they provide? I dont recommend doing as you are planning.

It makes it difficult to identify paragraphs and can be confusing for incest novels, the reader. Just try to keep your handwriting as clear as possible so that the brothers monologue, examiner can read it. Economy. Practice, practice and do more practice. Yes, you can ask for extra paper. Usually you just put your hand up and blood, then explain you need more paper. But I have heard from one student that they wasted precious minutes waiting for economy, the extra paper. Hi Liz, thank you for blood brothers monologue, precious advices, in on Flaws Grading your opinion is the use of Latin expression, such as e.g. or i.e useful in writing tasks for the academic module? Avoiding using them. Instead such linking words: for example, such as I was told overuse of linking words could lead scoring that true?

Yes. There is a criterion for marking which states that if you overuse linking words or if you use them mechanically (this means without flexibility), your score will not go higher in brothers that marking criterion. This related to Coherence and Cohesion which is 25% of your marks for writing task 2. Incest Novels. See my advanced lessons if you need training: What about an expression all in monologue all?Can it be used in of egypt a conclusion paragraph? I have known students use this. But I would stay with linking words most suitable for a conclusion = In conclusion. Thank you Liz for this useful lesson. The answer is for instance , still , because , especially , consequently , therefore. Check the answers on the page above. Thank you for your great lessons. It really helps a lot.

I have a question about a linking word and. Would it be okay to start a sentence with and? For example, this is mainly because of lack of physical activity and the poor quality of food. People are too busy. And in spite of blood brothers, economic growth, the quality of Children Severe Disabilities, food has diminished. Not in IELTS writing task 2. Never use and, but, because at the start of brothers monologue, a sentence in writing task 2. Thank you for your answer. I highly appreciate your great lessons and help.! I am not clear why a sentence can not be started using because. Since we have mentioned both: subordinating clause and main clause, there should not be any issue to Essay on Flaws Grading System, the examiner.

The words because, and, but should not be placed at the start of a sentence in formal writing. Brothers. They come between clauses in formal writing. Please guide me, how i can get good score in writing, Is it good to of egypt, use idioms, Phrasal verbs in writing task 2. Can I expree my opinion by using this sentence (in my own point of view) or its informal. Hello Liz I have question . If I use idioms or slangs to essay , could they help me to get higher score. I have a problem with writing task, I cant have enough time for task 2, Im constantly thinking about monologue, what to write next. can you give me some suggestion? hi madam if we are confused or not sure about answer can we can we write both the answer by using // in the middle. Can we use the phrase my personal sentiments to give opinion in task 2 instead of I believe or I think. Thanks for your kind initiatives for the IELTS students like us. In History Essay. It is really fortune for blood brothers monologue, me to economy, have an blood brothers, online teacher like you.

Please keep continuing. What is the procedure? to send u ielts writing for checking .. Plz plz tell me HI! Im one of your avid fan. I just want to life 1930s, say thank you. I recently got the score I needed for Writing after 2 takes. Blood. I used all your guidelines in making it coherent and scoring higher using your tips on having a balance essay for every kind of definition, questions.

I also did task2 first to make me more calm and relax in monologue writing the ardous part. THANKS FOR EVERYTHING! Thats really great news!! Well done!! Thanks for letting me know #128578; thanks Liz ,was very efficiently significant. I had written my IELTS test twice before coming across your website. Both the times I scored 6.5 in Writing which scoring above 7 in all the in the, other 3 sections. Brothers. I needed 7 in stretch writing and hence I enrolled for the third time. I came across your website 3 weeks before my test and went through all the study material in your web pages.

I got my scores last week and was ecstatic to see that I managed 7 in brothers my writing section. I am thankful to you and your website for america, helping me achieve my goal. You are doing such a commendable work. Keep it up. Thats really good news! Im so pleased for you.

It can be hard to hit that elusive band 7 in writing. Well done #128578; Hi Liz, are you available to correct my essay? If not, could you suggest another teacher? Thanks. You can find a teacher called Tony to monologue, help you on this page:

My God! You are doing a beautiful job. More Im studying from your website more Im impressed! I cant explain how much I feel grateful. Thanks a lot. Is the life in the 1930s america, writing matters for brothers, writing task 1 and 2? If so then whether we need to write in cursive or just clear.. I mean is any writing method acceptable? You just need clear writing. As long as the examiner can read it, you are fine. It doesnt matter what style of handwriting you choose. Task 2 which you provided is for BC or IDP.Because i am taking idp exam,pls give me reply.

The tests are the same in economy IDP and brothers monologue, BC they are both owners of IELTS. thank you a lot for giving us all this informative lectures and publishes. But why different teachers give different IELTS writing rules. Life. Example you teach us hooking in your introduction is monologue, not important, but other teachers demonstrate that it is very important. And if we add hook to economy of egypt, our writing could it reduce our marks? Some teachers have completed the IELTS examiner training and monologue, others have not.

beautifully you have explained variety of on Flaws in the Grading System, expression, i am preparing for ielts and having many issues while putting pencil on blood brothers monologue, paper to write answer for Writing task 2, would you please suggest how to get it done within stipulated time frame such as in month so that i can fulfill my dream to study abroad.. Firstly try to develop as many ideas for stretch reflex, writing task 2 topics as you can. You can do this by taking ideas from model essays and other sites online. See this page for common topics: Blood Brothers. For techniques, see my advanced lessons: First, I would like to reflex, say to you thank you for very nice lessons.

I was wondering to ask if you correct essay task 2 ? thank you very much. i just wanted to say that you are the best teacher. Hi mam i need your help how to write task 2 to get 8 band can you give 9band samples writing answer pls. You can find model answers on the main writing task 2 page of this blog. hi liz, i will give my ielts test after three month please help me in all. Blood Brothers Monologue. modules plss. There are 300 free pages of help on this blog. If you need more help with writing task 2, see my advanced lessons:

Hope you are fine. My name is reflex, Gagandeep. Blood Brothers. I have IELTS test on 16th July and I feel I am not able to structure my ideas in writing task 1 and task 2 both. Please let me know how can I bulid my ideas perfectly to get band 8. At present, I can only suggest you get my advanced writing task 2 lessons: Thank you so much for being replying to people i have recently got the IELTS date which is on 16th of jun its my second time i am giving ielts the first time i got 5 bands and i need at incest novels, lest 6.5 so how can i improve my grammar and vocabulary i have just 20 days remaining..

please do reply me soon. It is normally best to take the brothers monologue, test when you repeatedly get the score you want in practice tests. To improve English in just 20 days is a challenge. I can only suggest you decide what your main grammar problems are and deal with them one at a time. Economy. For vocabulary, review common topics for speaking ad writing you can find word lists on blood brothers monologue, google. this is my first query from you. Of Egypt. please clarify. how to blood monologue, use furthermore,morever,in addition in an essay please clarify. Excessive use of computers has many detrimental effects on childrens health.Firstly, frequent joint pain and fatigue are most likely to be experienced by in the america young individuals and monologue, these issue seems to Children to Profound, be prevaile till the blood brothers, death.Morever(do we use morever here to introduce new idea such effect of exceissive computer usage and academic grades or do we have to discuss another health related issue)(moreover will be used to introduce new idea such as school performance or anyother health related issue? thank you very much.

Sorry I dont comment on writing. Thank you for all the tips on how to Children Severe Disabilities, write a meaningful essay. However could you please help out on how to paraphrase the question as that part is posing a lot more difficulty for me at the moment. Thank you so much for blood monologue, the tips on Essay Disabilities, how to blood monologue, write a meaningful essay. However could you please help out with how to paraphrase the question, which is posing as the most difficult part for me right now. i am going to take my test in 3days , i am not perfect at task2 i cant able to know how many word are of mandetatory can i write more than 250 words , can you please give me any suggestion how to get good score in task2 any key words etc. You can find information and tips for writing task 2 on stretch reflex definition, this page: and blood brothers, you can find advanced training on this page: thank you very much.

Im going to take IELTS on 16th April) hey liz i am learn many things related to stretch reflex, ielts but my writing skill is monologue, not development and is it important strength of the sentence suggest me about this. A.A mam my problem is vocabulary. Plz help me by on Flaws System giving tips and vocab words. I need 7 in ielts. My general english is good. I can cope up with more complex sentence structures too.

But when it comes to blood brothers monologue, writing task 2 , my brain just stops working. My main problem is I cant brainstorm on my hero essay, the topic. How can I improve my brainstorming for different topics. Hello Mam,can you assess my writing task if i mail it to you please? Further I do not have good command on spelling. Brothers Monologue. how can i improve it within one month effectivly. I can found some problems in writing task2 and i can not used rich vocabulary and some time i cant get good how can i improve.

Hi Liz, I know that native english speakers rarely use moreover. Is it safe to use it in IELTS Essay? Thank you for Essay System, your useful lessons. I have a question that worries me lately. Would the assessor count repetitive words? For example if I used the word students 9 times in the whole essay? Or another example, if in writing task 1, I used countries names all the time (besides making it nationality: Britain = British). Each word is counted. It is the same as using word count on a word document. Are the following answers appropriate for the respective questions? Thank you for the help.

No, both answers cant be used. I appreciate your help on this question: can we use FIRST AND FOREMOST and monologue, LAST BUT NOT LEAST in economy Academic Writing? Yes, but they are over monologue, used. This question is not about the of egypt, linking words, its about grammar. In the blood brothers, 2nd question, why you have not use . problems ARE on the rise. instead of problems IS on the rise? thanks for your good websites.

how can i submit my writing for checking? thanks in advance. Unfortunately, I dont offer essay marking and I dont have any teachers to recommend. i wanna ask that sometimes like .to. Incest Novels. like question are there in listening task what is the right way to answer this. it is brothers monologue, 4to5 or it is4,5. Just 4 5. You dont need punctuation. Just make sure the incest novels, numbers are easily read and blood monologue, separate. Of Egypt. If you write 4 to 5 is would be marked wrong. Mam I weak in writing I Write only simple sentence then I lose band score What I use to blood monologue, get high score. You need to my hero in history essay, improve your English.

This is a language test make sure your English is good. Get a teacher and start learning from English language websites. Do this before you do IELTS. can i say, as a result in place of for this reason / therefore Yes, you can use that. We shouldnt use these terms in blood the speaking part, should we? The first thing i should mention is And i shouldnt forget to economy of egypt, mention. Theres a mixed variety of things but i guess the most popular one is I think that i had better answer directly and spend time on monologue, expressing my ideas rather than using these phrases, but my teacher told me that i should use these to life, help organize my answer. You can use those phrases if they help you explain your ideas but they wont necessarily give you a higher score.

In part 1, you must answer quickly and blood brothers, directly so dont use them. In part 3, you might use them to my hero in history essay, explain your ideas. The most important thing is to speak naturally. Thank you for your help. Brothers. #128578; I just want to ask about the appropriate answers for a listening practice test #128578; The questions are about ticket prices: According to what i heard, (1) is one(-)way. So is on Flaws Grading, this written with or without a hyphen? For the second blank i heard $45 in return . so should i write down $45 in into the blank or just $45 ? Thank you for your help.

One-way has a hyphen. For your second question, always look at the example they gave you. If the first one is $30 one-way then the second one must be $45 return. Blood Brothers. Always check the my hero, grammar. For note, form or table completion, grammar is rarely involved.

Thanks a lot. May all the best things come to you, teacher. Can I answer questions 1 and 2 in a different way ? It cant be However because there is no full stop. Always check grammar. For the second question, still is possible. Thank you so much.I really appreciate your reply.

Would my answer be correct if I used a full stop (.However, ) ? I am asking because I could not see any grammatical difference in this sentence between using (even though ) or ( . Blood Monologue. However, ) . Thats right. You need the full stop. Is not it possible to write the word this way: a way of communicating; however, it is? You would need to write the in the Grading System, full sentence for blood brothers monologue, me to check. I meant the first sentence you gave to practice. You answered Ahmad that is not right to use However there, and Children to Profound Disabilities, decided to brothers monologue, ask if it can be 1st sentence ;however, 2nd sentence.

Avoid using ; in IELTS writing. Life America. Just use full stops or commas. You are great God bless you. Hi mam.i want to brothers monologue, study with you online, if you have time please teach me. At present the only lessons I offer are on my video course which I have only just started making. With Severe To Profound Disabilities. At present there is one lesson available for writing task 2 and tomorrow I hope to put my second lesson up: Today while searching some helpful tips for ielts exam i went through your videos and i found it vry easy and helpful ways to improve our writing skills. Hope it will work during my exam too.

Thank you mam for such a wonderful tips and blood monologue, guidance. How i can improve my vocabulary please give me vocabulary is so poor. Start reading. That is the surest way to develop vocabulary and stretch reflex, understanding. Thank you so much. Thank you so much for brothers monologue, your wonderful tips.

Hello mam. I am Sandeep. My Hero In History Essay. Please help me. How i will get 6.5 band in blood brothers writing task. I have just received my Ielts result. Thanks to Essay on Flaws, your help, I have got an overall band score of 7.5, 8.0 for brothers monologue, the listening and reading test, 6.5 for stretch definition, the writing section and 7.0 for the speaking part. I am really delighted with this result because this is my first time ever studying on my own by using the materials on the Internet.

Thank you so much for monologue, all of incest novels, your lessons, I really appreciate what you have been doing and your dedication to teaching. May all the best thing come to you and your family. Your Vietnamese student, Im really pleased to brothers, hear your result. 7.5 is Essay in the System, a really good score, particular for your first try.

In Vietnam the average is around band 6. So, band 7.5 puts you much higher than most students in your country. I hope you celebrated your result ! Good luck with your future plans #128578; Thank you, teacher #128512; I have my ielts exam on Thursday. I just wanna ask you that in writing task 2 general ielts training test in my opinion. Should write in introduction or conclusion? I am little confused with that. And suggestions like they should do that That will come in blood monologue conclusion or in body paragraphs?

Where are they appropriate ? Looking forward for economy, your reply thanks. You put your opinion in the introduction, if the instructions ask for your opinion or for you to answer a direct question. If the instructions dont ask for brothers, your opinion, dont give it. Please see my model essays to stretch definition, see how and where I put my opinion. There is blood brothers, also a separate lesson about giving your opinion on the writing task 2 page. Is it advisable to use the listing words such as firstly, secondly, thirdly and finally at the last paragraph before the conclusion or I could use it also at my initial paragraph after the introduction? You use them as you want. They can order your paragraphs (although that is slightly mechanical) or you can use them to order supporting points in any paragraph you wish.

Thank you for your response liz #128578; Hello mam, i need your help how to complete reading task in one hour. There is some technic to do task as soon as possible because read full paragarh then find out reflex definition ans. Is take so much time. Blood. Also how i improve my listening skills mam please help me. Please read my tips about comprehension and strategy on the reading page. I want to ask you about Essay on Flaws in the Grading System, linking that are related to giving opinion. May I use them I take the view that and brothers monologue, I subscribe to Essay with Disabilities, the theory that in blood brothers monologue writing Task 2 or just in Speaking. Just be direct and reflex, dont try to learn phrases the examiner isnt impressed by students who purposely learn phrases to boost their score and will not award points for it. Blood. You can use In my opinion or I think or I agree for task 2. You can also find a lesson on of egypt, my task 2 page about how to give your opinion.

For speaking, it is informal so you can use a range I suppose, I guess or I reckon or I think etc. My ILETS exam was on the 4th of blood brothers monologue, July and today I got my results message (listening 6, reading 6, writing 5.5, speaking 6.5). I am really shocked by my speaking and listening results. Do you you think I will get any new result if I reject and apply for remarking? Listening rarely changes with a remark because it is marked by right or wrong answers and economy, mistakes almost never happen. For speaking, band score 6.5 means you make more than a few mistakes in your grammar and vocabulary or possibly that your fluency is strong enough to be able to blood monologue, talk at length without effort. Incest Novels. It is possible to get a remark for speaking but looking at your writing, it is even lower. Blood Brothers Monologue. So, it doesnt give confidence that your score will go up with a remark. However, you must judge for yourself.

I have recently found out incest novels about your videos and website and I deeply appreciate your effort. I am preparing for blood monologue, an Academic module in a limited time so I found your lessons and instructions very useful to manage my studies. Although I am still struggling with Reading skill. The key to reading is to spend time understanding the language in the questions and thinking about paraphrasing before you try and find the in the america, answers. The more time you spend with the blood brothers monologue, questions, the quicker it is to find answers. You should also be writing down a list of paraphrases from all reading exercises you do. Lastly, spend time planning a strategy for each question type and learning which questions have answers that come in order. You can find a page about of egypt, question types in brothers the reading section of this blog. Thank you for such a useful note, but it seems you missed contrast/opposite connection words. You will find contrasting linking words in the concessions and contrast section. Im confused using between these two words.

Is the in history essay, same as a result and therefore.? Could you explain it to me, please? Thank you very much. They have the blood monologue, same meaning and you can alternate using them. This is such a big help Ms. Liz.

Thank you for always updating your site! Love you! #128578; Please give me a common sentences of task 2 i can write in all type of essay. Sorry but that is not the right way to approach IELTS. The examiner is trained to spot learned sentences and you will lose marks. The sentences you should aim for are based on grammar structures or tenses: clauses, conditionals, prefect tenses, gerunds etc. Just review your grammar structures. Thanks to publish this useful words for writing task. I need 7 in Essay Severe Disabilities that task while I was got 5.5 in my first attempt after that I had knew about your site and I register myself in it and from that day onwards I regularly follow your tips hope i will improve in blood monologue my writing. Thanks again.

Make sure you check your level of English to get band 7. In the in the Grading, message above, your first 9 words contain 2 mistakes and blood brothers, the second sentence contains 5 mistakes. Stretch Reflex. You will need to reduce your errors to get band 7. Current IELTS exam topics and questions: Share your IELTS test results. Useful Links for blood monologue, IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to incest novels, yesterdays paraphrasing exercise 3. Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz).

I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the University of London. Monologue. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS. I have taught in Essay on Flaws Grading a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at brothers, the British Council.

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When Memorization Gets in the Way of Learning. A teacher's quest to discourage his students from mindlessly reciting information. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. I once caught an 11th-grader who snuck a cheat sheet into blood the final exam. At first, he tried to shuffle it under some scratch paper. When I cornered him, he shifted tactics. It's my page of equations, he told me. Aren't we allowed a formula sheet? The physics teacher lets us.

Nice try, but no dice. The principal and I rejected his alibi and Essay with to Profound Disabilities, hung a fat zero on his final exam. That dropped his precalculus grade down from a B+ to brothers monologue, a D+. Life 1930s America? It lingered like a purple bruise on blood, his college applications. Looking back, I have to ask myself: Why didn't I allow a formula sheet? Cheat sheets aim to substitute for memorization, and I hate it when my students memorize things. What's the on Flaws in the sine of ?/2? I asked my first-ever trigonometry class.

One! they replied in unison. We learned that last year. So I skipped ahead, later to realize that they didn't really know what sine even meant. They'd simply memorized that fact. Brothers Monologue? To them, math wasn't a process of logical discovery and thoughtful exploration. It was a call-and-response game. Trigonometry was just a collection of non-rhyming lyrics to the lamest sing-along ever.

Some things are worth memorizing--addresses, PINs, your parents' birthdays. The sine of ?/2 is not among them. It's a fact that matters only insofar as it connects to other ideas. To learn it in isolation is like learning the sentence Hamlet kills Claudius without the faintest idea of who either gentleman is--or, for what matter, of what kill means. Memorization is a frontage road: It runs parallel to the best parts of learning, never intersecting. It's a detour around all the action, a way of knowing without learning, of answering without understanding. Memorization has enjoyed a surge of defenders recently. They argue that memorization exercises the Essay Grading System brain and even fuels deep insights.

They say our haste to purge old-school skills-driven teaching from our schools has stranded a generation of students upriver without a paddle. They recommend new apps aiming to make drills fun instead of tedious. Most of all, they complain that rote learning has become taboo, rather than accepted as a healthy part of a balanced scholastic diet. Certainly, knowledge matters. A head full of blood brothers monologue, facts--even memorized facts--is better than an empty one. Essay With? But facts enter our heads through many paths--some well-paved, some treacherous. Which ones count as memorization? I define memorization as learning an brothers isolated fact through deliberate effort . Essay System? The process can unfold two basic ways.

First, there's raw rehearsal : reciting a fact over and over. Brothers? When I had to reflex, memorize a speech for ninth-grade English, I huddled in brothers the school library for 90 minutes, whispering the words to myself again and again, until they settled into essay my memory. Blood Brothers? The process was slow, dull, and stilted. Incest Novels? I forgot the speech within weeks. Raw rehearsal is the worst way to learn something. It eats up time and requires no real thinking. So of course, it's popular among students ranging from my Oakland 15-year-olds to blood brothers monologue, Harvard undergraduates.

During a unit on memory, I once heard a psychology student recite, Raw rehearsal is ineffective, before proceeding to practice her vocabulary using the same technique she'd just denounced. Second, there are mnemonics and other artificial tricks--songs, acronyms, silly rhymes. Essay Children? In sixth grade, for blood monologue reasons only essay, heaven knows, I memorized 48 prepositions (about, above, across, after. ) to the tune of Yankee Doodle. I can still recite them. Such tactics certainly work better than raw rehearsal.

But they don't solve the underlying problem: They still bypass real conceptual learning. Memorizing a list of prepositions isn't half as useful as knowing what role a preposition plays in blood brothers monologue the language. So what are the alternatives? How can students learn facts, rather than memorize them? First, there's repeated use . Like raw rehearsal, it relies on repetition to chisel a fact into memory, but unlike that method, it comes naturally (without deliberate effort). Reflex Definition? In 10th-grade English, I wrote a paper on Robert Frost's apocalyptic poem Once by the Pacific. I read it dozens of times, dissecting every phrase. Months later, standing on a rocky, storm-swept beach, I found that I could recite the poem by heart.

I never set out to blood brothers monologue, memorize it. I just. did . And second, there's building on already-known facts. Like mnemonics, this technique relies on connections and associations. But here, the connections emerge naturally from the Essay Children Severe to Profound Disabilities material. The fact is no longer an isolated thread, held in blood monologue place by a clever trick.

It's part of a tapestry. For example, suppose we're learning that Maryland fought with the Essay on Flaws Grading Union during the Civil War. We could invent a mnemonic, like Maryland starts with 'marry,' and a marriage is a union--cheesy, but fine. Blood Monologue? Or we could build on other facts. For example, Maryland borders D.C., so if it had seceded, the American capital would have been surrounded by foreign territory. Stretch Reflex? For exactly that reason, Lincoln worked hard to blood, keep Maryland on life in the 1930s, the side of the North.

What separates memorization from learning is a sense of meaning. When you memorize a fact, it's arbitrary, interchangeable--it makes no difference to you whether sine of ?/2 is one, zero, or a million. But when you learn a fact, it's bound to others by a web of monologue, logic. Reflex? It could be no other way. Memorization's defenders are right: It's a mistake to downplay factual knowledge, as if students could learn to reason critically without any information to reason about. Brothers? But memorization's opponents are right, too: Memorized knowledge isn't half as useful as knowledge that's actually understood. More than any other battleground, this conflict plays out in tests. Not the controversial behemoths forged in our state bureaucracies.

The little ones we teachers write and give, every day and week. If you wanted to economy of egypt, design a system of testing that catered to rote short-term memory, you'd struggle to blood, improve on the classic model--the high-stakes, time-pressured, single-unit, in-class exam. Students know exactly where and when their tests will be--so it's easy to cram. Life 1930s America? They know the test will be time-pressured--so even if students could deduce a formula mid-test, they're better off memorizing in advance. Students know the teacher has too much to cover, so the test will address only the most recent unit--making it easier to memorize the relevant bits. And they know the teacher has too many tests to grade, so he'll be asking quick-to-correct factual and computational questions--exactly the type where memorization most pays off. For efficient students, it's pretty clear what to do: Memorize the necessary facts in the ten minutes before class, and forget them in the ten minutes after class. Teachers can try to change the game, but only at a cost.

Want to ease the time pressure, so students have a chance to reason logically? Then you'll need to cut questions. Want to pose richer, more complex problems? Get ready for a late night of grading. Want to encourage deeper, longer-lasting learning by brothers monologue, including questions about older material? Good luck finding time to assess the new stuff. This is where cheat sheets come in. It has become common practice to allow students a page of notes during tests. In theory, this frees them from the bog of memorization, so they can soar bird-like among the abstract concepts and with Severe, big ideas.

But unless the brothers test questions demand that high level of thought--which is still a challenge, for all the on Flaws Grading System reasons mentioned above--you're left with the worst of both worlds: a test that requires neither deep understanding nor basic factual knowledge. With a cheat sheet, a question like Why did the Confederacy use Richmond as its capital for most of the Civil War? becomes equivalent to blood brothers monologue, Did you remember to jot this down on your page of notes? Getting students to dive into the real issue--what makes for my hero in history essay a good capital city, especially in light of the specific pressures facing the seceded states--might require a longer, more open-ended, slower-to-grade question such as, If Montgomery and Richmond had the same population and industrial capacity, which would have made a more desirable capital for the Confederacy, and why? Overreliance on memorization is like most problems in education: systemic. Brothers Monologue? One teacher can't topple the tyrant's statue alone. Incest Novels? But she can begin to chip away at the base. The Harrowing Personal Stories of brothers, Syrian Refugees, in Their Own Words. A documentary film crew travels to Greece to economy, capture the perspectives of new arrivals. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster.

The president told residents to be very proud they hadnt endured a real catastrophe like Katrina, doing little to erase the brothers impression that he sees hurricane relief more as a political story than a human one. Making his first appearance in hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico since Marias landfall, President Trump offered a hearty round of congratulations to Essay on Flaws in the System, federal relief efforts and thanked the islands governor. But the president also suggested Maria was not a real catastrophe, made an odd and misleading comparison to the death toll from Hurricane Katrina, and joked about brothers, how the hurricane would affect the federal budget. It was a typically strange, disjointed appearance by the president, and it came just days after Trump spent much of the weekend picking fights with the mayor of San Juan and insisting that, against all evidence, the recovery effort had largely responded to Puerto Ricos needs. At Muniz Air Force Base, Trump was eager to incest novels, praise the work of federal agencies, including FEMA, the Air Force, the Navy, and brothers monologue, the Coast Guard, amid a chorus of criticism that Washingtons response has been too slow and too small. But that praise led him in strange directions. A small group of incest novels, programmers wants to change how we codebefore catastrophe strikes.

T here were six hours during the monologue night of April 10, 2014, when the incest novels entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to blood, break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the on Flaws in the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to blood, 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. Stretch Reflex? They picked a number in the millions. Why are so many kids with bright prospects killing themselves in Palo Alto? The air shrieks, and life stops.

First, from far away, comes a high whine like angry insects swarming, and then a trampling, like a herd moving through. The kids on their bikes who pass by the Caltrain crossing are eager to get home from school, but they know the blood monologue drill. Brake. Wait for economy of egypt the train to pass. Five cars, double-decker, tearing past at 50 miles an hour. Monologue? Too fast to see the faces of the Essay with Silicon Valley commuters on board, only a long silver thing with black teeth. A Caltrain coming into a station slows, invites you in.

But a Caltrain at blood brothers a crossing registers more like an ambulance, warning you fiercely out of its way. The kids wait until the passing train forces a gust you can feel on your skin. The alarms ring and life in the, the red lights flash for a few seconds more, just in brothers case. Then the gate lifts up, signaling that its safe to cross. All at once life revives: a rush of incest novels, bikes, skateboards, helmets, backpacks, basketball shorts, boisterous conversation. Ew, how old is that gum? The quiz is next week, dipshit. On the road, a minivan makes a left a little too fastnothing ominous, just a mom late for pickup. Monologue? The air is reflex definition, again still, like it usually is in spring in Palo Alto. A woodpecker does its work nearby.

A bee goes in search of jasmine, stinging no one. The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. They distort the brothers monologue nature of the scientific enterprise, rewrite its history, and overlook many of its most important contributors. This morning, physicists Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for their discovery of incest novels, gravitational wavesdistortions in the fabric of blood monologue, space and time. The trio, who led the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project that recorded these waves, will split the 9-million-Swedish-krona prize between them.

Perhaps more importantly, they will carry the status of Nobel laureate for my hero in history essay the rest of blood monologue, their lives. But what of the other scientists who contributed to the LIGO project, and whose names grace the three-page-long author list in the paper that describes the discoveries? LIGOs success was owed to hundreds of researchers, astrophysicist Martin Rees told BBC News. The fact that the Nobel Prize 2017 committee refuses to Essay in the, make group awards is causing increasingly frequent problems and blood monologue, giving a misleading impression of how a lot of science is actually done. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. On the certainty of more shootings. Beyond the scores of people who have been killed and the hundreds who have been wounded in Las Vegas today, thousands of Children with Disabilities, other people, though not visibly or directly injured, have had their lives changed forever. Children and parents. Brothers Monologue? Husbands and Children Severe to Profound, wives. Blood Brothers Monologue? Brothers and sisters.

Something is instantly and permanently gone from their lives. Co-workers and friends. Members of incest novels, churches or sports leagues or the PTA. Customers and clients and students. Blood Brothers? Neighbors and casual acquaintances at the coffee shop or the bar. The rest of their days will be different and shadowed because of this massacre. Children, I want to explain why Coach Franklin wont be leading our soccer team any more.

Something bad happened, and life in the 1930s, . A New History of the First Peoples in monologue the Americas. The miracle of modern genetics has revolutionized the life story anthropologists tell about how humans spread out across the Earth. Europeans arriving in the New World met people all the way from the frozen north to the frozen south. Blood? All had rich and mature cultures and incest novels, established languages. The Skraeling were probably a people we now call Thule, who were the ancestors of the Inuit in Greenland and Canada and the In?upiat in monologue Alaska.

The Tai?no were a people spread across multiple chiefdoms around the Caribbean and Florida. Based on cultural and language similarities, we think that they had probably separated from earlier populations from South American lands, now Guyana and Trinidad. Incest Novels? The Spanish brought no women with them in 1492, and raped the Tai?no women, resulting in the first generation of mestizomixed ancestry people. The worlds most powerful information gatekeepers neglected their duties in Las Vegas. Again. In the crucial early hours after the Las Vegas mass shooting, it happened again: Hoaxes, completely unverified rumors, failed witch hunts, and blatant falsehoods spread across the internet. But they did not do so by brothers monologue, themselves: They used the infrastructure that Google and Facebook and YouTube have built to achieve wide distribution. Essay In The Grading? These companies are the most powerful information gatekeepers that the world has ever known, and yet they refuse to take responsibility for their active role in blood monologue damaging the quality of Essay Disabilities, information reaching the public. BuzzFeed s Ryan Broderick found that Googles top stories results surfaced 4chan forum posts about a man that right-wing amateur sleuths had incorrectly identified as the Las Vegas shooter. Civil-Rights Protests Have Never Been Popular.

Activists cant persuade their contemporariestheyre aiming at the next generation. One common response to the national anthem protests originated by Colin Kaepernick is to disparage them as polarizing. Joe Scarborough, host of Morning Joe , summed up this particular critique in a tweet last weekend: This may be unpopular but it is blood monologue, a political reality: The idea here is that kneeling NFL players are committing an act of such blatant disrespect that they hand Trump an Children Severe easy image with which to demagogue. Often attendant to the idea that protesting players are shooting themselves in the foot is the notion that in blood monologue some other era, black protest proved to be a unifying force that altered the psychology of some critical mass of open-minded whites. In the 1930s, the Germans were fascinated by Essay on Flaws Grading, the global leader in blood brothers codified racismthe United States. There was no more extravagant site for Third Reich political theater than the spectacular parade grounds, two large stadiums, and congress hall in Nuremberg, a project masterminded by Albert Speer. Essay In The System? From 1933 to 1938, he choreographed massive rallies associated with the annual conference of the Nazi Party, assemblies made famous by Leni Riefenstahls stunning documentaries of 1933 and blood brothers, 1935, The Victory of Faith and Children Severe to Profound Disabilities, Triumph of the brothers Will . Nuremberg was the setting for the September 1935 Party Rally of Freedom, at which a special session of the Reichstag passed, by Essay on Flaws Grading System, acclamation, legislation that disqualified Jews as Reich citizens with political rights, forbade them to marry or have sex with persons identified as racial Germans, and prohibited any display by Jews of national colors or the new national flag, a banner with a swastika. The Frightening Enigma of the Las Vegas Shooter.

The absence of monologue, any known ideological or personal motivation behind Sunday nights massacre makes the terror of an already random act of violence even deeper. Even before the victims are counted and the blood dried after mass shootings, the incest novels public, press, and politicians all begin searching to understand what drove the perpetrators. This is important as a matter of law enforcement Did they work alone? Is there a remaining threat? and to make sense of the senseless. But it also serves an important psychological purpose: If the killer can be fit into a known profile, it provides some minimal comfort to an otherwise horrifyingly random crime, some feeling that the key to preventing the blood brothers next tragedy is just doing a better job of recognizing people like him (its almost always a him) and incest novels, stopping them. Its one thing to blood brothers monologue, tell people, If you see something, say something, but if no one sees anything, it wont help. Life In The 1930s America? Thats one reason that Stephen Craig Paddock, the man police have identified as the shooter in monologue the Vegas massacre, which killed at Essay on Flaws System least 59 people, is such a frightening enigma. Monologue? His motivations are, as yet, entirely opaque. As countless people pointed out incest novels, Monday, Paddock does not immediately fit the profile of a mass shooter. More accurately, he does not fit any of the obvious profiles.

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Class XI Hornbill The Ailing Planet: The Green Movements Role. Nani Palkhivala was born in 1920 in Bombay to middle-class Parsi parents. His family name derives from the profession of his forefathers who had been manufacturers of palanquins. Blood? He was educated at Masters Tutorial High School, and later at stretch definition St. Xaviers College in Bombay. He was a dedicated scholar. Blood Brothers? At college, he earned a masters degree in English literature. Upon graduating, Palkhivala applied for a position as lecturer at Bombay University, but was not awarded the post. Soon found himself trying to obtain admission to institutions of higher learning to further his academic career.

It being late in the term, most courses were closed, and he enrolled at Government Law College, Bombay, where he discovered that he had a gift for unravelling the Essay on Flaws in the System, intricacies of jurisprudence. He was an excellent barrister at his time. Nani was taken critically ill on December 7, 2002, and taken to Jaslok Hospital in Mumbai. He died on Wednesday, December 11, 2002. More than ever the blood monologue, planet earth is losing its vitality and freshness. Due to human development activities, our earth has become highly polluted, highly irreparable and highly damaged. We have taken out petroleum, coal and economy a lot of natural resources from the earth. Blood Monologue? We have removed more than half of worlds vegetation and emitted large quantity of carbon and a lot of other chemicals. Reflex Definition? We have destroyed marine life and blood brothers made rivers dry. Moreover our greed for more and more wealth resulted in depleting the life in the america, protective ozone layer and invited all harmful rays to the earths surface. Besides, we have brought out a great imbalance between humans and blood the other species of the earth.

1. First Nation-wide Green Party: established 1972, New Zealand. 2. Worldview shifted from mechanistic to holistic and essay ecological. 3. Blood Monologue? Realization that the planet is a living organism in declining health due to human impact on its natural resources. 4. Sustainable development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their needs key to human survival and prosperity in the future. 5. We, today known as the worlds most dangerous animal, are custodians of the future.

6. Undiscovered species exist in large numbers but we may never discover their identity if we do not conserve their habitats. 7. Incest Novels? Lester R. Browns book The Global Economic Prospect identifies four principal biological systems of the earth as fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands. Brothers? They provide food supply and raw material for our survival. 8. Over-fishing and deforestation, coupled with uncontrolled population explosion, has led to the collapse of fisheries, disappearance of forest cover, conversion of grasslands to barren wastelands and the deterioration of crops. 9. We lose an acre and a half of forests every second and the World Bank estimates a five-fold increase in the rate of forest planting to cope with the economy of egypt, demand for fuel wood. 10. Article 48 A of the Constitution The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the brothers, country. Author laments that laws are never respected or enforced in India. 11.

Fertility falls as incomes rise, education spreads, and of egypt health improves. Thus development which may ensure raised incomes, is the best contraceptive. But development itself is not possible without a control on our population explosion. More children mean more hungry mouths which implies poverty as well as increased demand on our natural resources. 12. Brothers? Indias current population is estimated to be 1.3 billion while the incest novels, world population is about 7.5 billion. Hence, we hold the major chunk of the world.

The author questions whether we recognize this fact and monologue are at least now willing to in history make a change in our awareness of the human impact on environment. 13. Era of responsibility the awareness of our role and the need for sustainable development. 14. Author claims that the industry must join the brothers, cause and work towards becoming eco-friendly just as Du Pont under the leadership of Mr. Edgar S Woolard. 15. We are tenants of the planet, and are required to keep it repaired and well-maintained for life in the 1930s america generations to come Margaret Thatcher, Lester Brown. Our Earth is an enormous living organisman, of which we are parts. This is our planet, its destruction will make us all homeless.

We are dependent on Earth and not the other way round. However, the thankless creature, man, is unconcerned about the dangers that pose threats to our survival. The article by Nani Palkhivala deals with the concerns of the environmentalists at this eleventh hour and talks about the blood, new awareness that has dawned upon our race. A holistic and ecological view of the world has been brought into consideration. The Green Movement launched in 1972 has never looked back. There is a growing need of sustainable development, which was popularised by World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987. Man is the incest novels, most dangerous creature, as it was declared by blood monologue a Zoo in Lusaka, Zambia. Human beings are taking too much time to realise the need of the hour. In History Essay? One of the members of Brandt Commission, Mr.L.K.Jha, raised a vital question, are we to leave our successors a scorched planet of blood brothers monologue, advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes and ailing environment? Mr. Lester R. Brown expressed his worry over the fact that our four biological systems are reaching an life in the, unsustainable level.

The tropical forests, the powerhouse of evolution, as Dr. Meyers called them, are being destroyed causing extinction of several species. The fear hovers, what if the blood, words, forests precede mankind and deserts follow, come true. And the reality is that India is life america losing its forests at the rate of 3.7 million acres a year. The Article 48A of the Indian Constitution provides that the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country.

To conserve the environment and to bring down the population of the world, which is blood brothers 5.7 billion, Palkhivala suggests that development is the only solution. Fertility falls as the income rises, education spreads, and health improves. Nani supports compulsory sterilisation and reflex definition defends it by saying that there is blood monologue no other alternative but coercion. The population of India today is 920 million, which is more than the entire population of Africa and South America. What is happening today is that rich are getting richer and poor are begetting children, which begets them to america remain poor. Now the folks have realised what endangers our race. It is not about the survival of human race but the survival of the planet Earth. It is an Era of Responsibility. The industrialists have to understand the present concern with most consideration. The view of the Chairman of brothers, Du Pont, Mr.

Edgar S. Woolard is much appreciable, our continued existence as a leading manufacturer requires that we excel in environmental performance. Let us be grateful to mother nature and keep Margaret Thatchers felicitous words, No generation has a freehold on this earth. Economy? All we have is a life tenancy with a full repairing lease. In the words of Mr. Lester Brown, We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children. Q1.

Why is the earth said to brothers monologue be an stretch reflex definition, ailing planet? Ans. Due to the insensitive exploitation by blood humans for their survival and development, the earth has lost almost all its vital resources. With drying rivers, depleted and polluted environment and deteriorated forests and greenery, the earth is Disabilities now breathing hard for its survival and thus it is an ailing planet. Q2. What is the significance of Green Movement in the modern world? Ans. The Green Movement that was found in New Zealand in the year 1972 brought a great awareness to the humanity. Brothers Monologue? It taught us that we are just partners on the earth having equal rights to inhabit this planet as any other living organism has.

Having learnt this, human beings worldwide stopped large amount of destruction that it used to cause upon the earth. People realized that the earths existence was threatened and began to do whatever was possible by each individual and each nation. Q3. What did the most dangerous animal on the earth learn in the recent time? Ans. Man is the most dangerous animal on Essay to Profound Disabilities, the earth. He has learnt in the recent years a new lesson that he is brothers not the master of the planet but just one among the rest of the animals and economy of egypt trees, plants and insects, who should live like a partner in brothers, survival on the earth. Q4. What was the question raised by Essay Children with Disabilities the First Brandt Commission? What does it suggest? What is the significance of this question?

Ans. The first Brandt Report raised the question, Are we going to leave behind for our successors a scorched planet of brothers, advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes and ailing planet? This question finds an answer in our minds but we quite conveniently forget this answer. It has been proved in the recent years that the earth is becoming hotter planet every year and stretch definition another ice-age is under way. Blood? This question is still significant and will remain significant until the only schooled animal of the earth stops his war against economy of egypt, the planet. Q5. What goes under the pot now costs more than what goes inside it. Explain. Ans. With a growing population and the pace of the global developments taking wings, the cost of food touched a new height, all time high. Amazingly, the cost of cooking-gas overtook that of food-grains, fish, meat and vegetables, thus the fuel to cook gas, firewood and electricity now costs more than the raw-food. Q6.

Why is blood it said that forest precedes mankind? Ans. No animal on the planet earth ever caused damage to it but humans have been causing serious destruction upon reflex definition the earth ever since he had evolved. By cutting down trees for his survival and development humans have established their monopoly over the other species. Thus, with the coming of humans, the existence of forest was threatened. Q7. What did Lester Brown mean when he said that we have not inherited this earth from our forefathers, we have borrowed it from our children? Ans. Lester Brown believes that the present population of the earth has no right to blood monologue think that the earth is its property. Each one has to believe that he is having full responsibility to keep the earth protected from all kinds of misuse.

He has to feel that the earth is place that he has to return to the generations to come. Brown further furnishes that human beings have no right to misuse the earth because we are accountable to the new generations after us. Q8. How is my hero in history essay human population explosion the biggest threat to the existence of the ailing earth? Ans. Human population is the blood brothers, biggest threat to the existence of the earth. Though it reached a billion in a million years, another billion was added to the world population in just another hundred years. Every four or five days the world population increases by one million. Essay With Severe To Profound Disabilities? The effects of this dangerous increase in world population are endless yet the brothers monologue, most catastrophic one is our present struggle for existence. Q9.

What does the empty cage and the board in the zoo in Lusaka mean? Ans. In a zoo in economy of egypt, Lusaka there is blood brothers monologue a mirror kept in one of the cages that is said to be the cage of the most dangerous animal in the world. The visitor sees his own face in the mirror and realizes that he is that most dangerous animal. The message is that human beings have won the infamous other than that of a zoo animal. The board message conveyed is a warning to the most dangerous animal to come in terms with the earth.

Q10. What are the four principal biological systems? How are they the foundation of the global economic system? Ans. The four principal biological systems of the earth are fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands.

In addition to supplying our food, these four systems provide virtually all the raw materials for industry except minerals and petroleum-derived synthetics. Q11. Why is tropical forest called the powerhouse of evolution? Ans. It is in economy, the heart of the tropical forests where newer plants and animals evolve to more adaptable forms. Q12. How is population responsible for the environment degradation? Ans. With rising population, space that nature assigned for forests and animals. Blood? More population means less forests and animals. Unfortunately mans first choice is nature and on Flaws Grading System it is sadly vulnerable and an easy prey.

When cities and megacities occupy the major portion of the earth, the ecological balance is said to be lost. Q13. What does more children mean to the poor section of people of India? Ans. Poverty is directly caused by illiteracy and lack of education. The illiterate and uninformed poor people of blood, India believe that more children is more income.

In fact more children means more responsibility and more poverty and an unhealthy family and individual. Q14. What does Mr. Economy Of Egypt? Edgar S Woolard mean by assuming the post of his companys Chief Environment Officer? Ans. Mr.

Edgar S Woolard, chairman of blood brothers monologue, DuPont, an international manufacturer, by co-assuming the post of the companys Chief Environmental Officer (CEO), stands a model for the owners and chairpersons of all the industries worldwide. Incest Novels? He implies that the chief motive of an brothers, industry is to my hero in history essay preserve the stability and blood life of the earth and profit comes next. Q15. What are our ethical obligation to the ailing planet? Ans. Human beings have the greatest obligation to the earth to 1930s america safeguard this planet from all advancing deterioration and keeping it safe so that it can be handed over to the coming generations to inhabit here peacefully and in the midst of abundance. Q16. How do you explain the concept of sustainable development? Ans.

Sustainable development is the kind development activities that meet the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This kind of development is expected to be undertaken without stripping the brothers monologue, natural world of resources that the future generations would need. Q17. How do fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands form the foundation of global economic system? Ans.

A majority of the world population depends on sea food for their survival while forests provide firewood, raw materials for production and incest novels timber for blood monologue construction. Grasslands are the destination of cattle and herds of life in the 1930s america, animals and without them, domestic and wild animals, the blood brothers monologue, global economic system cannot survive. Each one is life america depending on monologue, the other while it help the other to survive. There are nations, except the gulf countries that depend on petroleum, that solely depend on forests and fisheries and croplands for trade and sustenance. Q18. Is Indian constitution capable of safeguarding its forests? Ans. So far, with all the measures adopted, the government has not been able to in history safeguard its forests effectively. Indias constitution is ostentatiously rich and effective but when it comes to enforcement, it miserably fails or it is not entirely successful. Q19.

Margaret Thatcher says, No generation has a freehold on this earth. All we have is a life tenancy with full repairing lease. How is this statement significant today? Ans. Everyone says, it is blood brothers monologue my land and that is your land. People fight for other territories and encroach the neighbors land. It is here what British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatchers observation gains importance. We are not supposed to occupy the earth considering that the planet belongs to us and that we can exploit the planet any way we like. We, on economy of egypt, the contrary, have to extract the resources so carefully that the generation that comes after us will have a better land and sea, a less dense forest, cleaner water and clearer sky. Q1. Blood Brothers? How has the growth of life 1930s, world population affected the environment?

Support your answer with suitable arguments? Ans. The author Nani Palkhivala enumerates some alarming statistics to suggest how the growth of world population has tremendously affected the environment. The population which took a million years to brothers reach the with to Profound, first billion took just another hundred years to reach the second billion. Another century passed it and reached the alarming figure of 3.7 million. Presently it is over 6 million and there is blood brothers a huge demand on reflex definition, resources, natural or man-made. The resources worldwide are under a lot of stress and pressure. The four principal biological systems i.e. fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands which form the foundation of the global economic system and provide raw materials to monologue the industry are facing a lot of in history, stress. The human demands on these systems are increasing at a rapid speed. Hence, sustainability and productivity are both hampered. When this happens, fisheries collapse, forests disappear, grasslands become wastelands and brothers croplands deteriorate.

The need of the hour is to become sensitive towards the needs of the environment to get affected; we will leave behind nothing but an ailing planet for our future generations. Q2. Stretch Reflex Definition? We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children. Discuss. Ans. Earths resources are limited and will not last forever. In the twentieth century, there has been a revolutionary change in human perception.

We cannot take the planet for granted. We are mere custodians. We have to take a holistic view of the very basis of our existence. The earth is a living organism of which we are parts. It has its own metabolic needs to stay alive and must be respected and preserved for the future generation. What is required is sustainable development that meets the blood brothers, needs of the present without compromising the destiny of future generation. There are four biological systems, namely fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands. My Hero? They form the foundation of the global economic system.

They supply us food and raw materials for industry. In larger areas of the world, these systems are reaching unsustainable levels. Brothers Monologue? Their productivity is being damaged. The growth of world population is another factor distorting the future of our children. Development is not possible if population increases. In this era of responsibility towards our future generation, population must be controlled. Industries must become environmental friendly. Now many industrialists, politicians and writers have realized their responsibility in 1930s, preserving the non-renewable natural resources for the future generation. Abe ads to hata de side ka kuch dikhta hi ni.

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lesbian essay (from the Heath Anthology Newsletter ) The Gay and Lesbian Presence in American Literature. by David Bergman. Towson State University. Unlike African American literature or Asian American literature or even Jewish American literature, the teaching of lesbian and gay literature does not necessarily require opening the canon to new authors. It does require, however, opening our eyes to what is already there. I can#146;t imagine teaching a course in American literature that entirely eliminated all lesbian and brothers monologue male homosexual writers. How could one get through a course completely silent about Walt Whitman, Henry James, Henry David Thoreau, H.D., Herman Melville, Elizabeth Bishop, James Baldwin, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Tennessee Williams, Edward Albee, Hart Crane, Allen Ginsberg, Gertrude Stein, Audre Lorde, and Adrienne Rich?

I suspect that all teachers of American literature assign at in history essay, least some of these writers because the story of American literature can#146;t be told without acknowledging lesbian and gay writers, although it has often been told by blood brothers monologue ignoring that they were gay and lesbian and by omitting works that speak most clearly about their sexual orientation. The late Thomas Yingling wrote that gay male writers were permitted to speak but not to tell. It is also true of teachers of American literature we speak about economy these authors, but often we do not tell. Why this silence? Of course, we know the answer to this question, or rather the answers to blood brothers monologue, this question. Homosexuality is the life in the 1930s america last great taboo of American society. Soldiers who say they are ready to blood, die for their country refuse to my hero in history essay, take showers with homosexuals. Those who would defend to the death the blood brothers right of Essay on Flaws Grading, freedom of speech would rather people kept mum about their homosexuality.

In education, parents fear that talk of homosexuality will promote its practice or recruit young people, although I have never met anyone who was recruited into the ranks of the queer; conversely, I've never heard anyone explain why all the talk of brothers, heterosexuality hasn#146;t made everyone straight. Definition! Teachers feel uncomfortable discussing sexual preference; students are often uncomfortable when the topic is raised, and administrators feel the brothers monologue legislators, alumni, or the press will object and (dare I use the phrase?) blow the subject out of proportion. Some of these fears are exaggerated. I have never had a student object to my treating lesbian and homosexual subjects in class, but I have known colleagues who have had students object. Indeed, my students seem particularly interested in incest novels, the subject, and the topic stirs lively discussions. The love that once dared not speak its name is blood monologue currently the topic on the lips of every talk show host on incest novels daytime television.

And one wonders what Geraldo, Sally Jesse, or Phil would do during a tight ratings week without gays and lesbians. Nevertheless, students are not used to hearing talk of blood monologue, lesbians and gay men in the classroom, and stretch definition teachers setting out to raise the topic (and I am always the first to broach the subject; don#146;t expect students to raise it on their own) had better be prepared for the dead silence that awaits them initially. Monologue! A class that has been listless and inattentive becomes suddenly all ears at in history essay, the first mention of the word. The women look up suspiciously, the guys defiantly. I#146;ve had to become accustomed to this silence, this unswerving attention. But after this moment of suspicion and defiance is past, and as soon as the students are sure you#146;re not speaking about them , they show an brothers monologue avid interest in the topic. Everyone seems to have an opinion and stretch definition the variety of views and lack of blood brothers monologue, consensus is both marvelous to behold and troublesome to witness. In History Essay! Myth, misinformation, and bigotry stand next to truth and brothers monologue insight, expressed with equal intensity. Somehow the economy of egypt classes go on, generating more light than darkness.

My success in brothers monologue, teaching gay and lesbian literature is not because students know I am gay. I#146;m always surprised that so many of them think I am straight. (I#146;m, in fact, rather reticent about my personal life because of both temperament and philosphy. On Flaws In The! I prefer to think I#146;m in the classroom to teach a course, not to blood brothers, involve the students in my psychodramas.) Whatever success I have is, I think, a result of the way I handle that moment of silence when the whole class is testing to see how I will address the in history essay topic. I have learned that I avoid student opposition and brothers monologue generate open discussion if I follow three rules. First, the discussion must arise from my hero trying to understand the work before us. It cannot be gratuitous. Blood! What does Whitman mean by manly love ? To whom are Rich#146;s Twenty-one Love Poems addressed? Why is the incest novels erotic world of Africa so incompatible with Christian ethics in Countee Cullen#146;s Heritage ? What is the beast in The Beast in brothers monologue, the Jungle ? If the subject arises from trying to understand the text, one avoids two problems. First it immediately answers the questions: why does it matter whether the on Flaws System author is lesbian or gay? What relevance does it have to the work?

When the topic of homosexuality arises from trying to locate more precisely the meaning of a passage, image, or symbol, it is clear why such considerations are not only relevant but essential to understanding the work as completely as possible. Second, it keeps the work from being read only monologue, as an expression of a person#146;s sexuality. I have found that mentioning a writer#146;s sexuality at the beginning of a discussion gets in the way. Students who harbor prejudices tend to pigeonhole the work without really reading it, refusing to address its complexities. Homophobic students will simply dismiss the work and you. They will claim that you#146;re trying to shove queer works in their face. Or the brighter and more accepting ones will accuse you of reading the work through the lens of the author#146;s sexuality. In History! Also, gay and lesbian students will project their experience on to a text without regard to what the blood author is actually saying. In The Grading System! If students are first engaged in understanding the text, then they are more willing to engage in understanding how sexuality influences the way we read a work and how sexuality affects the way the work is blood brothers constructed. Second, I adopt an entirely matter-of-fact tone.

I want the students to feel that I see them as adults and, as adults, we can discuss these matters openly, freely, and thoughtfully in the effort to understand. Incest Novels! Students look for signs of a teacher#146;s bias one way or the other. I like to show them that what I expect of them is blood monologue no more than a mature, frank, and relevant discussion of the topic. Of course, there are times when the students#146; ignorance and immaturity show (or the mere weight of traditional thinking). Life In The 1930s! Once, while I taught Audre Lorde#146;s Walking Out Boundaries, a student made the comment that her love for another woman was unnatural. And the issue of naturalness comes up all the time, even among better-educated audiences. I#146;ve found several ways to deal with this issue. The first is to ask what the student means by brothers monologue natural. This leads to quite an extended discussion, and I only ask such questions when I have time and a mature-enough class for such a discussion. The other useful strategy the one I use when time is short is to ask: But how does Lorde regard her relationship?

How does the of egypt garden imagery work in blood monologue, this poem? How is the poem a response to the widely-held belief that lesbian relationships are unnatural? In short, I try to use homophobic comments as a way of voicing the cultural context in which lesbian and gay literature is situated, the background against which it moves. Indeed, recently I have found that my students tend to underestimate the prejudice against Essay on Flaws in the Grading, gays and lesbians. Blood Brothers Monologue! They are shocked to incest novels, hear that people have regularly lost their jobs, careers, and livelihoods when their sexuality was exposed. What I don#146;t find useful is to lecture students about understanding and consideration for others. Such straightforward tactics lead to charges that the teacher is monologue bullying, and also limit discussion and intellectual exploration. However, I don#146;t allow students to gush hate without challenging their prejudices. By linking the discussion to a specific textual issue and by presenting an example of mature frankness to my students, I usually pre-empt the worst expressions of homophobia. Sometimes students use such words as dyke and fag . As a rule, I don#146;t allow such words to be used in incest novels, class, but I recall one occasion when I was teaching Hart Crane#146;s My Grandmother#146;s Love Letters, a poem that I#146;m afraid doesn#146;t appear in the Heath , when I let the brothers monologue word fag pass. In the poem, Crane asserts that his grandmother would be less sympathetic to Essay Children Disabilities, his love letters than he was to brothers, hers, and I asked the life students what sorts of things might block maternal sympathy and understanding.

There was a long silence, and then from the back of the class a student, a young man who had been at pains to show his machismo all through the brothers monologue semester, began to speak: Was he . . . a fag? he asked. I wouldn#146;t want my grandmother to know that about me. And what do you make of the #145;sound of gently pitying laughter#146;? I asked. The world is laughing at him for even thinking for a second that she might understand.

Exactly. It#146;s real sad, he said. This is a real sad poem. In this case the student was struggling to see the world through Crane#146;s eyes. Severe! Perhaps for blood brothers, the first time in his life he began, despite himself, to understand what many gay people go through, and for that far more important lesson, I was willing to put off challenging the Essay with Severe to Profound Disabilities use of fag . The last rule for avoiding resistance to lesbian and gay literature is to prepare for brothers, such a discussion by speaking about heterosexuality.

I think one of the problems in discussing gay and lesbian issues and why students might complain that gays and lesbians are getting special treatment is my hero in history essay that there is a presumption of blood, heterosexuality when teaching other texts. Sexual desire can#146;t be merely a topic that arises in lesbian and gay literature; we must make it a topic relevant to heterosexual material as well. Of Egypt! In fact, students are often less sympathetic to heterosexual depictions of erotic desire than they are to homosexual depictions. How they dislike the Frost of The Subverted Flower or Provide, Provide or the swaggering Williams in Danse Russe, poems I find myself defending against their rather strict notions of propriety. Brothers Monologue! (Students have terrible difficulty finding a way to speak about sexuality that is economy neither sanctimonious nor ribald. Their minds are either in the clouds or the gutter. Monologue! A certain lightness of Essay Severe Disabilities, tone in brothers, these discussions can do them a world of good. In fact, the most resistance I get is in a British literature survey to the combining of spiritual and erotic love in Donne and Herbert.) If sexuality is an issue that has been discussed, then homosexuality and lesbianism become logical and unavoidable extensions of the topic. This approach will also correct that false impression that gay men and reflex definition women are sex-obsessed.

You may have noticed that most of my examples have been from blood brothers monologue American poetry, rather than from American prose. With some exceptions Billy Budd is the most obvious example the on Flaws Grading System fiction and non-fiction selections keep away from the topic, even, I must admit, in The Heath Anthology of American Literature . It seems to me that poets maybe because of the example of Whitman have been and continue to be more up front about sexual issues than prose writers, or at least more able to get their homosexual and lesbian works into monologue, anthologies. Part of the reflex reason is the different ways people react to prose and poetry. A friend of mine has for brothers monologue, decades written highly confessional poems without objection, but when he came to write a memoir, a chorus of former friends rose up in opposition, and threatened to sue him. In verse, homosexuality can be read as merely metaphor; in prose it appears pornographic. (One sees the same sort of incest novels, difference between painted and photographed nudes. Eakin#146;s The Swimming Hole can grace the blood covers of textbooks, but a Mapplethorpe nude would encounter howls of protest.) I advise supplementing any anthology with additional reading. On Flaws System! Adrienne Rich#146;s Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Experience and Audre Lorde#146;s The Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power can fit alongside of a study of their poetry. Indeed Lorde#146;s essay on The Erotic as Power compliments nicely the poem Power, which is included in The Heath Anthology . Both the Rich and monologue Lorde essays are reprinted in in the System, The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader (Routledge, 1993). Blood! A colleague of mine has enormous success in her class with a short, powerful excerpt from Armistead Maupin#146;s More Tales of the City (Harper, 1980), a letter in which Michael Tolliver, the gay hero of the series, comes out to his parents (159). The passage#146;s literary quality is, I admit, not the highest, but it expresses feelings that gay and lesbian students understand and 1930s with which heterosexual students can sympathize.

I can think of two works which will do very well in a large number of American literature classes: James Baldwin#146;s The Outing, included in Going to Meet the Man (Dial, 1965), is a classic coming-of-age story. Edmund White, the finest gay writer to emerge since Stonewall, has a story An Oracle in the collection The Darker Proof (NAL, 1988), which presents AIDS in monologue, light of the transatlantic and reflex definition transcendental spiritual themes which are often used as threads in American literature courses. Several years ago there were very few books that instructors could use to help them understand gay and lesbian literature. Today there are monographs and journals that cover the topic. Several general studies are especially helpful: Bonnie Zimmerman#146;s The Safe Sea of Women (Beacon, 1990), Claude J. Summers#146;s Gay Fictions: Wilde to monologue, Stonewall (Continuum, 1990), Sexual Sameness: Textual Differences in Lesbian and economy Gay Writing edited by monologue Joseph Bristow (Routledge, 1992), Lesbian Texts and Contexts: Radical Revisions (New York U P, 1990) edited by incest novels Karla Jay and Joanne Glasgow, and my own book Gaiety Transfigured: Gay Self-Representation in American Literature (Wisconsin, 1991). These are starting places. I began by saying that gay male literature (and to blood brothers, a lesser extent lesbian literature) is already in in the 1930s, the canon if we simply look for it.

But I think there are lesbian and gay works that have been excluded from the canon not only because they are explicitly homosexual or lesbian, but because they express a sensibility that heterosexual critics have marginalized. The best example of this marginalization comes from blood brothers monologue British literature in Ronald Firbank, whose seemingly trivial works have been central to many gay and lesbian writers after him. In American literature, I think Jane Bowles is often left out of stretch reflex definition, courses because her works look too marginal. In fact, I don#146;t think that even gay scholars have a clear idea of what the outlines of gay and lesbian writers#146; finest work could be. It seems to blood brothers, me that Alfred Chester, almost completely lost, but now slowly emerging from obscurity, could be a major writer we have overlooked. In The America! And James Purdy is an extremely important writer though his work is very hard to brothers monologue, evaluate.

And there are others. I am not content with the idea that the lesbian and gay writers who have slipped into incest novels, the canon are really the finest gay and lesbian writers, but rather those who have, in Roger Austen#146;s chilling phrase, been most successful at playing the game of heterosexual taste. I can imagine the shape of future Heath Anthologies to be rather different once lesbian and gay scholars begin seriously examining their literary heritage, just as feminist and ethnic critics have revamped the anthology we have now.