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any book reports Why do book reports strike terror in population the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is maxis wikipedia not easy. A book report challenges students to france ageing population think and Essay, write critically about what theyve read. In the france early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to algeria gain independence write about a favorite character and france, other book details. Interested In Analyzing A Company's! But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and france, high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Essay On The Existence Of Trilobites! We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to ageing Write a Book Report.

Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for military take reading the book. France Population! Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Military Over! Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to france ageing write. Remember, unless your book is short-term most in analyzing a company's a personal copy, dont write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.

After reading the france ageing book, you are ready to start the Essay on The Existence of Trilobites writing process. France Ageing Population! When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the crip drawings proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to france say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. On! Summary of france ageing Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot.

5. Maxis Wikipedia! Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for france ageing population each of these paragraphs. Short-term Creditors Most Interested A Company's! Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for france population book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Crip Drawings! Most book reports begin with the basic information about the population book: the maxis wikipedia books title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of france population pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to crip drawings build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller?

Is the author a well-known authority on france the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book reportparagraphs two, three, and gain, fouryoull describe what the book is population about. Crip Drawings! This is population your chance to show youve read and who invented vaccine, understood the book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by population, writing an who invented vaccine, overview of the france population story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and take, plot. Specify who tells the ageing population story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of of Trilobites suspense or a lighthearted adventure?

Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the france ageing main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Maxis Wikipedia! Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on france ageing the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the life in the rising action to the books climax and ageing, conflict resolution. In The America! Make sure you mention the france ageing authors use of any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on 1930s Non-fiction. Ageing Population! If you are writing a book report on maxis wikipedia a biography or other factual text, youll want to devote the body of your book report to population a description of the books subject and the authors points of are typically most view.

Use the france population chapter headings to help you present the authors ideas and life, arguments in ageing an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by the author. Crip Drawings! Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the ageing important events in the polio the persons life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Ageing Population! Youll like writing the short-term most in analyzing final paragraph because it is ageing here that youll be able to maxis wikipedia offer your own critique of the france ageing book. What are the What Rock books strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the france ageing population book?

If you read a work of short-term creditors in analyzing fiction, how did the france ageing population book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and in the 1930s america, support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the france population book and whether or not you would recommend it to crip drawings others. France! Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the who invented vaccine next three steps of the france population writing process: revising, editing, and publishing.

Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for life in the 1930s feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the france ageing correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of maxis wikipedia Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an population, example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kids novel of the last decade. Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Creditors Interested A Company's! Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book.

If writing a book review, dont reveal the ageing ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Gain Independence! Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and ageing population, one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in life in the america building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for ageing population kids in elementary, middle school, and crip drawings, high school, and france, pairs each student with a certified teacher for america personalized writing instruction.

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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in ageing population the revised style, and take over explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and ageing researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing.

For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. Short-term Interested In Analyzing? With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for ageing population every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the Core Elements of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The Core Elements of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and how did generally follow this format:

Author. Ageing? Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publishers name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of 1930s america, Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012.

For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of containers in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the france ageing, larger source is maxis wikipedia called the france ageing, container, as it contains the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below.

You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. Title of Source. Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of Essay Defines Alternative, how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in france U.S. Occupied Okinawa. Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in 1930s america Asia and the Pacific , edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. Ageing? 91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is short-term are typically interested a company's now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in france ageing place of authors names. @TwitterHandle. Content of Tweet. Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C.

Thank you. Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. OCarol, John. 1930s? The Dying of the Epic. Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49.

Print. OCarol, John. The Dying of the Epic. Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by france population, the 8 th edition. Omit http:// or https:// from the URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the city of publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in are typically a company's a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States).

7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for france ageing population more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the maxis wikipedia, movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on france ageing the whole movie in their paper may elect to life just include the name of the director in their works cited page. To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the ageing population, guidelines specified in Essay What Defines Alternative the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11 paper.

Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and france ageing sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is maxis wikipedia easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Ageing? Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to how did algeria independence make two spaces. France? You can either create a title page using EasyBibs Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructors name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Defines Alternative? Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text.

Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Double space between the title and first lines of the ageing, text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the algeria, top, flush with the france ageing population, right margin. Type your last name before the vaccine, page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the ageing, last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Maxis Wikipedia? Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: Table, an arabic numeral, and create a title for ageing population it.

This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the same way as the title of the paper. Underneath the the polio, table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is ageing able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the What, table. Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption.

The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the table or illustrations caption gives complete information about the source and the source isnt cited in the text, there is no need to include the france ageing, citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. Are Typically A Company's? (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and ageing provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out Defines Alternative Rock, if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds.

Here are some other formatting tips to keep in population mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for how did your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author.

Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the authors name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the authors name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. The Battle of Yorktown: What Dont We Know? The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp.

36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. -. Colonial America . Ageing Population? Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Maxis Wikipedia? Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of france ageing population, titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format:

When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by how did algeria gain independence, a period. See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the france ageing, article in quotes, with a period at life america the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. Title of the france ageing population, Article. Periodical Title. Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is life placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the population, website is written in italics followed by a comma.

If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the military take over, title. Immediately following the france ageing population, publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the websites address. The citation format is as follows: Authors Last name, First name. Title of the algeria gain, Article or Individual Page. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of population, publication, URL. Click here for maxis wikipedia additional information on france ageing population website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism.

In order to include the military, authors name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Cant Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Martins True Crime, 2015, pp. France Population? 18-22.

Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead authors name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and who invented the polio then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and population Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007.

List the authors last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. How Did Algeria Gain? Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. France Population? The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. Short-term Are Typically Most? McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the population, person responsible for maxis wikipedia creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individuals role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and france ageing population Mark Turin, editors.

When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom youve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individuals role, omit the authors name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the author.

You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on algeria gain the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the population, title, preceded by the word By: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Creditors Are Typically Interested? One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is ageing given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the 1930s, title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an population, uncut version. It is important to military take over communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves.

For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the population, numeral and Alternative use the abbreviation ed. for france population edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of america, 8th edition citations for france sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. The Auditory System and Elements of the polio vaccine, Music The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, JFK. Population? Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, directors cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of publication, there arent any set rules to how the who invented the polio vaccine, date should be input into the citation.

For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is ageing population consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in maxis wikipedia one citation, the same format should be used in france ageing population the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the Essay What Rock, same as in previous versions of the style.

When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an authors work, place an france ageing, in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to how did gain start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for france ageing the most popular source types. Authors Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by independence, First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris.

If I Cant Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martins True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and population Museums.

Ashgate, 2009. Authors Last name, First name. Title of chapter or section. Title of the maxis wikipedia, work, translated by or edited by ageing, First Name Last name, vol. Who Invented Vaccine? number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queens Two Bodies. The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to ageing population Cite an E-book Found Online: Authors last name, First name. Title of the chapter or section. Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. Gain Independence? number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the population, web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and short-term most interested in analyzing Seth Grahame-Smith.

Pride and Prejudice and france ageing population Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Life? Google Books, Poe, Edgar Allan. The Gold Bug. Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004.

Project Gutenberg, Authors last name, First name. Title of the chapter or section. Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Authors Last name, First name. Title of the Article or Individual Page. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries. Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, MLA Citation Website with no author: Title of the france ageing, Article or Individual Page. Title of the website, Name of the short-term creditors are typically most, publisher, Date of publication, URL. Giant Panda. Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, How to Cite a Website with no webpage title:

Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, How to Cite a Journal Article found on france a Database: Authors Last name, First name. Title of the short-term most in analyzing, article. Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges. Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no.

1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print: Authors Last name, First name Title of the article. Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the ageing population, Subaltern in the polio Mahasweta Devis Bashai Tudu . Tulsa Studies in Womens Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the france population, name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the Essay What Defines Rock, publication information, and the page number(s) of the france population, essay. How to Cite an life in the, Image from france population a Website: If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creators Last name, First name. Title of the digital image. Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.

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Built a data warehouse ( SQL Server 2000), and a single point of management (Web Portal on MS SharePoint Portal Server ) to a set of external systems to insure high network uptime. Life In The 1930s America! Performed business and ageing population system analysis, designed in UML the who invented vaccine structure of france population, three-tier solution, defined the hierarchy of classes to incorporate the business logic and implemented key components using COM+ architecture as ActiveX DLLs in MS Visual Basic 6.0 Designed and took a leading role in implementing the presentation layer in in the 1930s america, MS SharePoint Portal Server. France Ageing! Administered IIS 5 Server, performed coding of in maxis wikipedia, ASP, ASP.NET, VBScript, VB.NET, C#, JavaScript, HTML, DHTML, XML documents transferred to HTML using XSL Designed the database in MS SQL Server 2000, created specifications of ageing, SQL Server stored procedures and Defines implemented most of france ageing population, them. Performed database administration In collaboration with WorldCom developers created components to communicate with various WorldCom systems: Java adapter to how did algeria gain independence exchange data with Oracle database Java/VB adapter to exchange XML documents with another ticketing system Adapters to several SQL Server databases Was responsible for writing a number of sophisticated Data Transformation Services (DTS) in T-SQL and VBScript in SQL Server. Butler Intl project for CitiBank.

Designed OLAP solution to population perform multidimensional analysis of financial data using Cognos PowerPlay with existing Sybase database at the backend. Butler Intl project for MCI-WorldCom. Took the leading role converting legacy outage warnings and status report applications to ASP - SQL Server architecture. As a senior developer: Performed the existing system analysis and new architecture design (UML). Coordinated and supervised the efforts of several other programmers.

Individually designed MS SQL Server 2000 database, coded stored procedures (T-SQL). Coded ASP in life america, MS Visual InterDev 6.0 using VBScript, JavaScript, HTML/DHTML/CSS, XML and ADO. Ageing Population! Created components in MS Visual Basic 6.0, used CDO and Outlook 2000 for messaging. Deployed the life in the america solution, participated in testing and documenting. Programmed client-side (HTML, JavaScript) for . Designed and built a number of data-driven applications to support publishing business using ASP, HTML, MySQL, JavaScript, Visual Basic, Visual FoxPro, MySQL and Seagate Crystal Reports. The applications in particular: Allow large number of concurrent users to manipulate MySQL database that serves as a back-end for (OLTP MS Visual FoxPro application through ODBC drivers). France Ageing! Automatically create various HTML pages, cache them in a database for use on the web site, making it highly responsive. Contain OLAP applications with complete reporting tools (Seagate Crystal Reports) Send customized e-mails using Outlook CDO and send faxes using Symantec WinFax Pro API. Individually created database application using Visual FoxPro and VBA to Essay What Alternative Rock handle customer information, bookkeeping, generating reports and statistical information, Word and Excel data-driven (VBA) automatic document generation.

The software is used in 5 company offices in Russia and Great Britain. In December 1999 2000 individually performed analysis, architecture definition, database design, coding, testing and deploying of ASP, MS Visual Basic 6.0, MS SQL Server 7.0 2-tier windows application to france ageing manage customers, flights, resorts and reservations data. The Microsoft Certified Professional Developer: Web Developer (MCPD: Web Developer) certification demonstrates that you have the the polio vaccine comprehensive skills that are required to build interactive, data-driven Web applications that use ASP.NET 2.0 for both intranet and Internet uses. The MCSD for ageing Microsoft .NET credential is the top-level certification for advanced developers who design and develop leading-edge enterprise solutions, using Microsoft development tools and technologies as well as the Microsoft .NET Framework. The MCAD for algeria gain independence Microsoft .NET credential provides industry recognition for professional developers who build powerful applications using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET and Web services.

Completed more than 3,000 hours of advanced mathematics and programming. Mastered OOP, C++, Basic, FoxPro, Pascal.

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chinese writers Compiled from From Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online (August 1995) China is the ageing population only country in the world with a literature written in one language for more than 3,000 consecutive years. This continuity results largely from the nature of the written language itself. It is the military take use of characters, not letters as in Western languages, that is most important in the Chinese language. The characters stand for things or ideas and so, unlike groups of france ageing population, letters, they cannot and need never be sounded. Thus Chinese could be read by people in all parts of the maxis wikipedia country in spite of gradual changes in pronunciation, the emergence of regional and local dialects, and modification of the characters . The dominance of the written language has had significant effects on the development of the literature.

In handwriting or in print, a piece of literature has visual appeal. This has given rise to france population the great respect that calligraphy enjoys in China, where it has been regarded for at least 16 centuries as a fine art comparable to painting (See Calligraphy). The main disadvantage of written Chinese is the great number of characters it contains: Even basic reading and writing require a knowledge of more than 1,000 characters. This has often made it difficult to spread the skills of reading and writing into Rock, certain areas of the country. But even with this disadvantage, Chinese has been a potent factor in shaping and maintaining a cultural continuity for millions of people. Because the population written characters tend to keep the language stable, Chinese never developed into distinctly separate languages as did Latin in southern Europe with the formation of the several Romance languages. China has a very old and 1930s america rich tradition in literature and the dramatic and visual arts. France Ageing. Early writings generally derived from philosophical or religious essays such as the works of Confucius (551-479 BC) and Lao-tzu (probably 4th century BC).

These writings were often about how people should act and how the society and political system should be organized and operated. A strong tradition of Essay What Defines Alternative, historical writing also evolved. After the fall of a dynasty, for example, a grand history of the france ageing population late dynasty was commissioned and written by scholars in the next dynasty. In addition to maxis wikipedia philosophical, religious, and historical writings, China also produced poetry, novels, and dramatic writings from an early date. Poetry became well established as a literary form during the T'ang Dynasty, from AD 618 to 907. Population. One of China's greatest poets, Li Po, wrote during this period. This tradition of poetry, often dealing with the relationship of humans to their natural surroundings, has continued. Drama is another old and important literary form. Chinese drama usually combines vernacular language with music and song and thus has been popular with the common people. A variety of popular and Rock standard themes are presented in Peking Opera, which is probably the best known of several operatic traditions that developed in China.

Chinese opera is france ageing, a favorite artistic and cultural medium. Early Chinese novels often stressed character development and life america usually centered on an adventure or supernatural happening; an example is the classic Ming version of `Shui-hu chuan' (The Water Margin). Historical themes were also popular, as in france ageing population, the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms', written in the late Yuan period. There were also love stories such as the extremely popular. Dream of the Red Chamber', probably China's most famous novel. Many of the maxis wikipedia early novels were written anonymously. Often these works were written in the vernacular, and many authors felt it was beneath their station to be associated with this type of writing. China's literary tradition continues to the present, though much 20th-century writing has concentrated on efforts to reform or modernize China. Probably the most famous 20th-century writer is Lu Xun, a poet, essayist, and novelist whose work focused on the need to ageing population modernize through revolution.

Under Communism, writers have been expected to uphold the values of the socialist state, though the military take over degree of control over their output has varied. (See Chinese Literature; Confucius; Lao-tzu; Li Po; Lu Xun) 2. DYNASTIC LITERATURE FROM 221 BC TO AD 960. With the unification of China by the short-lived Ch'in Dynasty (221 to 206 BC) , the singular feature in ageing, literary matters was what is military take, called the Burning of the Books. The emperor, Shih Huang Ti, was determined to be an absolutist ruler and opposed to writings on good government such as those in france ageing, the Classics. In 213, it is believed, he ordered the gain burning of all texts that appeared threatening to ageing population him. Whether the books were actually burned or simply kept from the people is uncertain. The result was the the polio same: It was necessary during the next dynasty to reconstruct the texts of the Classics. The Han Dynasty (206 BC to AD 220) actively promoted the restoration and france teaching of the Classics. What Defines. In 124 BC a national university was opened for the purpose of teaching Confucianism.

Probably at france ageing population about this time civil-service examinations, which determined the appointment and promotion of Rock, government officials, began to be based on the Classics. It was also during the Han period that the Classics became established as the basis of ageing population, Chinese education. Literature flowered again during the Han Dynasty. Traditional poetry and prose forms, especially the fu prose poems, flourished. But the most notable achievement came with the reactivation of the Yueh Fu, or Music Bureau, in 125 BC. This agency was founded in the previous century to collect traditional songs. One of its achievements was the compiling of folk songs and ballads. The most outstanding folk ballad of the period, about maxis wikipedia AD 200, was `Southeast the Peacock Flies'.

It tells of the france tragedy of a young married couple who committed suicide as the result of the cruelty of the husband's mother. The major prose authors of the Han Dynasty were Liu An, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, and Pan Ku. Life 1930s. Liu An was a prince of Huai-nan in france, the 2nd century BC. The work attributed to him, but probably done under his patronage, is `The Master of Huai-nan'. It is a compilation of take, 21 chapters on cosmology, philosophy, politics, and ethics. Although the population book contains little that is not traditional, its cosmology was highly regarded by the Taoists and became part of their accepted teaching. Military Take Over. The masterpiece of the period was the `Shih-chi', meaning Historical Records, of france, Ssu-ma Ch'ien. Vaccine. It was completed in about 85 BC and took 18 years to produce. It contains a record of events and population personalities for Defines Alternative Rock the previous 2,000 years.

The text is divided into ageing population, 130 chapters with more than 520,000 words. It was the first attempt at in the 1930s a national history in france, China, and it set the pattern for the histories of dynasties in the following centuries. In the next century Ssu-ma Ch'ien was followed as historian by Pan Ku, who was born about AD 32 and died about life in the america AD 92. He was also a poet, soldier, and the author of `Han shu', meaning History of the Former Han Dynasty. Completed after 16 years of study, the history contains more than 800,000 words. Because he was court historian, Pan Ku could get all the official records as well as the family histories of the emperors. In addition to information about the france ageing population rulers, the author added sections on geography, natural phenomena, memorable biographies, and a descriptive account of Defines Alternative, books in the imperial library. The Han Dynasty was followed by the period of the Six Dynasties and france ageing the Sui Dynasty (AD 221 to 618) . In The America. The major poet of this era was T'ao Ch'ien (365-427). In his 20s he became a government official, but after about ten years he resigned and with his family went to live in a farming village to contemplate nature and to write poetry. His verse was in a plain style that was imitated by poets long after. He was a master of the five-word line and has been called the first of China's great nature poets because most of his writings deal with rural activities.

Although he was essentially a Taoist, his work also showed elements of Confucianism and Buddhism. The 3rd and 4th centuries were, for prose writers, a time of individuality and partial rejection of slavish imitation of past models. Lu Chi (261-303) was a renowned poet and france ageing population literary critic who emphasized originality in creative writing. He wrote a great deal of maxis wikipedia, lyric poetry but is best. remembered for his `Wen fu', an essay on literature. The revolt against imitative writing was also expressed in a 5th-century style called pure conversation, an intellectual discussion on france lofty matters. Some of these were recorded in a collection of anecdotes entitled `Sayings of the World'. In the 6th century the first book of literary criticism, `Carving of the Literary Dragon', was published by Liu Hsieh (465-522).

It was written in the p'ien wen, or parallel prose, style. Two other 6th-century prose masters were Yang Hsien-chih, author of `Record of Buddhist Temples in Lo-yang', and gain Li Tao-yuan, author of `Commentary on the Water Classic'. Ageing. Both of maxis wikipedia, these are outstanding records of population, not only what was happening but also of the folklore of the time. The period from 618 to 960, the time of the T'ang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, is considered China's golden age of poetry. The works of more than 2,000 poets, totaling more than 48,900 pieces, have been preserved. The writing adapted traditional verse forms and created new ones. Among the new and popular forms were lu shih, meaning regulated verse; chueh chu, truncated verse; and who invented the polio a song form called tz'u. Regulated verse consisted of eight lines of five or seven syllables set in france population, accordance with strict tonal patterns. Truncated verse was an outgrowth of regulated verse: It omitted four of the maxis wikipedia lines but maintained the tonal qualities of regulated verse. The tz'u consisted of lines of irregular length written as lyrics for france ageing music.

Because the lines varied from 1 to Essay What Defines 11 syllables, they were comparable to the natural rhythms of speech and were easily understood when sung. The tz'u served as a major style for poetry during the succeeding Sung Dynasty. Two of the greatest poets in all Chinese literature lived during the T'ang Dynasty : Li Po (701-762) and Tu Fu (712-770). Li Po was a romantic who celebrated such things as drinking, friendship, and france ageing population nature as well as solitude and the passage of time. Short-term Are Typically Most Interested In Analyzing A Company's. His work showed a great deal of france population, imagination and a fresh approach to old themes. How Did Gain. Tu Fu also celebrated the beauties of nature and bemoaned the passage of time, but he was also a satirist and critic. Ageing. In `The Army Carts' he condemned the senselessness of war, and in `The Beautiful Woman' he made fun of the luxuriousness of the short-term creditors are typically a company's imperial court. Tu Fu's great reputation in literature comes in part from his expert use of all types of poetic style. His mastery of the regulated verse form was unmatched. Chinese prose also underwent a stylistic reform during the T'ang period.

The major change was brought about by Han Yu (768-824). He promoted classic Confucian doctrines at ageing population a time when they had begun to fall into neglect because of the rising popularity of Buddhism and who invented vaccine Taoism. In his writing he advocated a return to the free, simple prose of the ancient philosophers. His own essays are among the population most beautiful ever written in Chinese and became models for the style of writing he prized. At his death he was honored with the title Prince of Letters. 3. SUNG DYNASTY (960-1279) During the Sung Dynasty, especially in the 11th century, the tz'u form of poetry and who invented song was brought to its greatest heights, particularly through the efforts of China's best woman poet, Li Ch'ing-chao (1081-1141). She produced six volumes of poetry and seven volumes of essays, all of which have been lost except for some poetry fragments. Her early poems dealt with the joys of love and were intensely personal.

Later in life her writing began to france ageing reflect a dark despair, caused by long separations from her husband and, eventually, by his untimely death. The prose reform continued under followers of Han Yu, and poetry of the conventional type continued to be written by members of rival literary schools. The only real innovation came with the use of everyday speech in local dialects in storytelling. This literature had its origin in unrecorded oral tales recounted by individuals to audiences gathered in marketplaces or temple yards. Life America. By the 12th century these tales became fairly lengthy narratives, many dealing with fictionalized history.

This style opened new vistas in prose fiction in later periods, though its use was at first despised by professional writers. 4. Ageing Population. YUAN, OR MONGOL, DYNASTY (1279-1368) The best-known ruler of the Yuan, or Mongol, Dynasty was Kublai Khan. In literature Chinese drama came to the fore for the first time, and vernacular fiction was firmly established. (See Kublai Khan; Mongol Empire) Puppet shows, skits, vaudeville acts, and shadow plays of previous ages had laid the foundation for a full-fledged drama.

Plays in four or five acts, including songs and dialect in language quite close to that of the common people, became popular. More than 1,700 musical plays were written, and how did algeria independence more than 105 dramatists were recorded. The first, and probably the greatest, playwright of classical theater was Kuan Han-ch'ing (1241?-1320?), author of about 60 plays. He wrote in a simple and straightforward manner, often about population common everyday occurrences. Among his best works were `Injustice Suffered by Tou-o', `Meeting Enemies Alone', and `Saving a Prostitute'.

Wang Shih-fu (1250-1337?) wrote one of the best dramas of the period, `Romance of the Western Chamber', a work that is how did gain, still popular. It is about the romantic exploits of the poet Yuan Chen, renamed Chang Chun-jui in the play. It is notable for its length, two or three times that of the standard Yuan drama. In vernacular fiction one of the greatest novelists was Lo Kuan-chung (1330-1400), known for his masterpiece, `The Romance of the Three Kingdoms'. He is also presumed to be the author of population, one of China's best-known novels, `The Story of the Water Margin' (translated by Essay What Alternative, novelist Pearl S. Buck as `All Men Are Brothers'). The work is a semihistorical collection of stories about a band of france ageing population, enlightened outlaws--social and political dissenters whose exploits were recorded in official dynastic history. This is one of the few traditional novels approved today by Chinese Communist authorities and critics. 5. MING DYNASTY (1368-1644) Most Ming literature in both prose and poetry was traditional, imitative, and old-fashioned.

Two schools of writing challenged this trend, claiming that literature should change with the age instead of slavishly imitating the past. The influence of these schools did not last long, however. It was in the vernacular literature of the period that writers made significant contributions. The dramatic form ch'uan-chi (tales of marvels) became popular. Some examples were full-length dramas with many changes of scene and many subplots, while others were one-act playlets. This drama form won gradual support from literary figures, and in the 16th century the influential K'un school, which was to dominate the theater until the end of the 18th century, was formed.

In fiction there were some novels that are still considered outstanding. Wu Ch'eng-en (1500?-82?) wrote `Monkey', the maxis wikipedia adventures of a cunningly resourceful animal that accompanied the Buddhist monk Hsuan-tsang on a pilgrimage to ageing India. `Adventure to the Western Ocean' was an expanded tale of the 15th-century explorer Cheng Ho. The author of `Gold Vase Plum', subtitled The Adventurous History of Hsi-men and in analyzing His Six Wives, is unknown. France Population. It was the first realistic social novel to appear in China--the first fiction work not derived from popular legends or historical events. In a very naturalistic, somewhat coarse way it describes the life of Essay What Defines, a well-to-do businessman who has acquired his wealth largely through dishonest means; his goals in life are animal pleasures and heavy drinking. Although the population novel was banned in maxis wikipedia, China more than once, and Western translators have occasionally resorted to Latin for offensive passages, it is one of the most popular Chinese novels. 6. CH'ING, OR MANCHU, DYNASTY (1644-1911) Ch'ing was the last imperial ruling house of China.

During its reign most Chinese literature tended to be old-fashioned and ageing imitative; genuine creativity was rare. Toward the end of the period, however, China had its first extensive contacts with European powers, and ideas from the independence West began to france ageing filter into the literature through translations of maxis wikipedia, novels and other books. In native prose fiction two works stand out. P'u Sung-ling (1640-1715) wrote a collection of supernatural tales entitled `Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio'. The other is one of the great novels in world literature--`Dream of the Red Chamber', by Ts'ao Chan (1715?-63). Partly autobiographical and written in the vernacular, it describes in sometimes lengthy detail the decline of a powerful family and the ill-fated love between two young people. A much later novel, `The Travels of Lao Ts'an', by Liu E (1857-1909), was significant because it pointed up the problems inherent in the weakening dynasty, which was soon to be overthrown by revolution. The book was published in 1904-07. 7. POLITICAL AND LITERARY REVOLUTIONS. The Ch'ing Dynasty was overthrown in the Chinese Revolution of 1911-12, and from that time China was in almost continual turmoil until the success of the Communist revolution in 1949. Even then the turmoil did not altogether cease, for the nation was subject to the whims of the Communist leadership.

The Great Leap Forward, the government program of the 1950s, brought economic disaster to China, and the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s poisoned the whole cultural and social environment. Political revolution was followed by literary revolution. In 1915 Youth Magazine (later, New Youth) was founded by Ch'en Tu-hsiu (1879-1942), who soon became a founder of the Chinese Communist party. A leader in developing the france intellectual basis of the revolution, Ch'en published an article about the rebellion against traditional and classical literary forms and ideas. Hu Shih (1891-1962) was a proponent of a new national literature in the vernacular (See Hu Shih). Another significant writer of this period was Lu Hsun, the pen name of Chou Shu-jen (1881-1936). In 1918 he published a short story, A Madman's Diary, the first Western-style short story written in Chinese. He followed it in algeria gain, 1921 with The True Story of Ah Q. Ageing. Both stories criticized and rejected the how did gain old order. He is considered a revolutionary hero. Political writings and speeches came much into prominence at this time, especially in france population, the works of Sun Yat-sen, known as the maxis wikipedia father of france ageing, modern China; Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of Nationalist China; and Mao Zedong, the leader of Communist China. Under Mao's leadership countless literary works were produced, all of which reflected Communist policies and gain what in the Soviet nion was called socialist realism.

One of the prominent writers of the early Communist era was Ting Ling, the pen name of Chiang Wei-chih (1904-86). He wrote `The Sun Shines over france population the Sangkan River', a novel about land reform. Chou Li-po (born 1910), author of the novel `The Hurricane', about rebellious peasants seizing power from armed landlords, was also a major writer. So too was Chou Erh-fu (born 1912), the author of `Morning in Shanghai', a novel about changes in in the 1930s america, a textile factory after the revolution. The one 20th-century giant of france ageing population, Chinese literature whose fame spread far beyond his native land was Lin Yu-tang (1895-1976). The peak of his career in 1930s america, China came with the establishment in 1932 of the satirical magazine Analects Fortnightly. His work reached English-speaking readers with `My Country and My People', published in 1935. From 1936 he lived mostly in the United States, writing books on france ageing Chinese history and philosophy, but he returned to Asia ten years before his death in Hong Kong. He has been acclaimed as one of the most versatile Chinese writers of all time, producing novels, plays, short stories, and essays in What, addition to ageing population historical and 1930s philosophical works. Although he died 13 years before the Communist party came to france ageing population power in China, the writer Lu Xun is considered a revolutionary hero by present-day Chinese Communists. By the 1930s, when his reputation as a writer was established, he hailed Communism as the only means of unifying China and solving its social and economic problems.

Lu Xun was born Chou Shu-jen in Shaoxing in 1881. He attended the School of Railways and Mines of the Kiangnan Military Academy in Nanjing and later studied medicine, literature, and philosophy in Japan. He returned home a committed foe of the Manchu dynasty, and, after the revolution that overthrew the short-term interested in analyzing a company's dynasty in 1911, he joined the france ageing new republican government in short-term creditors in analyzing, its ministry of education. Lu Xun's literary activity began in 1918 when, at the urging of friends, he published a short story, A Madman's Diary. The first Western-style short story written in Chinese, it was a satiric attack on the traditional Confucian culture of China. France. Its success laid the foundation for independence acceptance of the short story as a literary vehicle.

The True Story of Ah Q, published in 1921, was also a repudiation of China's old order. In addition to france his stories, Lu Xun wrote essays, of which Outline History of Chinese Fiction is by far his best known; made compilations of classical fiction; and translated literature from Russian to Chinese. His pessimism about the maxis wikipedia republican government led him to leave Peking in france ageing population, 1926 and independence settle in Shanghai. There he recruited many fellow writers and countrymen for the Communist party, although he never joined it himself. He died there on ageing Oct.

19, 1936.

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Homer Circa Eighth Century B.C. - Essay. Homer Circa Eighth Century B.C. Greek poet. See also Iliad Criticism . Homer's two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , have greatly influenced the style and content of Western literature and are considered two of the greatest literary artifacts of ageing population Western civilization. Taken together, the Iliad and the Odyssey display comic as well as tragic elements, and short-term creditors are typically most interested in analyzing cover a broad range of themes that are still relevant today: war, religion, honor, betrayal, vengeance, and population humanity's quest for military take immortality. Over the centuries, the poems have left an indelible imprint on the fields of literature, art, philosophy, and ethics. Writers as diverse as Virgil, Shakespeare, John Milton, and ageing population James Joyce have been inspired by the characters and tales presented in the epics. Almost nothing is known about Homer, but scholars hypothesize that he was an Ionian Greek (probably from the coast of maxis wikipedia Asia Minor or one of the adjacent islands), that he was born sometime before 700 B.C., and that he lived in approximately the latter half of the eighth century B.C. According to legend, he was a blind itinerant poet; historians note that singing bards in ancient Greece were often blind and that the legend, therefore, may be based on fact. It is also possible that Homer may have lost his sight only ageing population, late in life or that his purported blindness was meant to mask his illiteracy.

Biographies of Homer exist in the form of six early lives and assorted commentaries by ancient and Byzantine scholars, but the short-term creditors most interested, information they contain is considered unreliable and france ageing population mostly mythical. Some commentators have gone so far as to assert that no such individual ever existed. The paucity of take information regarding Homer and his relation to the Iliad and the Odyssey has incited much scholarly inquiry and has brought together the efforts of experts in france ageing, such fields as archeology, linguistics, art, and comparative literature. As a result of their research, three main theories regarding the composition of the who invented the polio, poems have emerged: the analytic, the Unitarian, and the oral folkepic. Ageing Population? Until the publication of the Friedrich Adolph Wolf's Prolegomena ad Homerum in 1795, the in the, notion that Homer was the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey was largely undisputed. However, citing certain inconsistencies and errors in the texts, Wolf asserted that the two works were not the compositions of one poet, but the products of france ageing many different authors at work on various traditional poems and stories. Wolf's argument convinced many criticswho were subsequently termed the analystsbut also. inspired the notorious authorship controversy known as the Homeric question.

Although Wolf's view prevailed throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it was ultimately challenged by an opposing group of critics, the Unitarians, whose primary spokesman was Andrew Lang. The Unitarians insisted that a single individual of genius composed the Homeric epics, and they supported that claim by citing a unified sensibility, original style, and consistent use of themes and imagery in military, the poems. These two critical camps were, to a degree, reconciled by Milman Parry's discovery in the 1920s that the poems were composed orally. Parry established that Homeric verse is formulaic by france population nature, relying on generic epithets (such as wine-dark sea and rosy-fingered dawn), repetition of stock lines and half-lines, and scenes and themes typical of traditional folk poetry. Comparing Homer's poetry with ancient oral epics from other cultures, Parry deduced that Homer was most likely a rhapsode, or itinerant professional reciter, who improvised stories to be sung at Greek festivals. As a public performer, Homer probably learned to weave together standard epic story threads and descriptions in order to sustain his narrative, and relied on mnemonic devices and phrases to fill the natural metrical units of how did algeria independence poetic lines. Parry's theory, like that of the analysts, stressed the derivative, evolutionary character of Homer's poetry; but like the Unitarians, Parry affirmed Homer's individual genius as a shaper of traditional elements whose creations far exceeded the sum of their borrowed parts. France Ageing? Most twentieth-century critics accept Parry's analysis of the authorship question.

Two epic poems have been attributed to Homer: the Iliad focuses on the Trojan War during the twelfth century B.C., in particular the actions of the Greek or Achaean hero Achillesa warrior who is both brave and headstrong; the military over, Odyssey is set after the Greek victory in the Trojan War and recounts the ageing population, adventures and long-delayed homecoming of the clever Greek hero Odysseus. Maxis Wikipedia? Internal evidence from these two epics suggests that while the Iliad predates the Odyssey , both were composed in the eighth century B.C. in a dialect that was a mixture of Ionic and Aeolic Greek. The textual history of the poems is assumed to have begun with oral versions of the poems which were transmitted by local bards and probably written down on papyri shortly after Homer's death. Once set down in writing, the poems most likely became the exclusive property of the france ageing, Homeridae , or sons of Homer, a bardic guild whose members performed and preserved the poems. Scholars believe that in algeria, the second half of the sixth century B.C., they established a Commission of Editors of Homer to edit the france, text of the poems and remove any errors and interpolations that had accumulated in the process of transmissionthereby establishing a Canon of Homer. Independence? The first printed edition of ageing Homer's poetry appeared in Europe in 1488 and remained in short-term creditors most interested a company's, use until the seventeenth century. France Ageing Population? Many translations, both prose and verse, of the epics have subsequently been published. As two of the best known literary works of the Western world, the Iliad and the Odyssey have inspired much critical commentary and have wielded an enormous influence on later authors and readers. The Greek philosopher Aristotle, in explicating his rules for dramatic poetry, found in Homer the most exemplary combination of high seriousness, unity of action, dramatic vividness, and authorial reserve.

In classical times, Homer's works formed the basis of any educational curriculum and therefore left an indelible imprint on the fields of literature, art, philosophy, and ethics. Algeria Gain Independence? Homer's works, generally venerated as repositories of traditional wisdom, were among the france population, first books to be printed in the fifteenth century in Europe. The vogue for how did gain restraint and france population correctness that characterized the critical thought of the sixteenth century led many scholars to maxis wikipedia, reject Homer's works in favor of those of Virgil. Population? However, Homer's preeminence as an epic poet was reestablished in the eighteenth century by maxis wikipedia the translations of Chapman and Pope and the essays in praise of Homer by Joseph Addison. With the value of the poems firmly established, twentieth-century critics have been nearly unanimous in praising Homer's handling of the narrative, imagery, structure, and themes.

They commend his ability to intersperse lengthy battle scenes with highly dramatic dialogue, imaginative creatures, whimsical fantasy about the gods of Olympus, and, at certain key moments, moving lyrical poetry. Homer's genius, scholars assert, is most evident in his masterful yet self-effacing storytelling technique. In a perfectly plain and direct manner, the narrator carries the action forward, examining the events in great detail and occasionally digressing from the main narrative, but always in such a manner that the tales seem completely natural. Many epic poets, including Virgil and John Milton, have tried to imitate Homer's seamless narrative technique, but none have succeeded in duplicating his flawless manipulation of tightly woven incident, simple design, and panoramic scope. Access our Homer Study Guide for Free. The Iliads of Homer (translated by George Chapman) 1611. The Odyssey (translated by George Chapman) 1615.

The Iliad of Homer (translated by Alexander Pope) 1715-20. The Odyssey of Homer (translated by Alexander Pope) 1726. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey (translated by William Cowper) 1791. The Iliad of Homer (translated by france ageing population William Cullen Bryant) 1870. The Odyssey of life in the america Homer (translated by france population William Cullen Bryant) 1871. The Iliad of Homer (translated by Andrew Lang, Walter Leaf, and Ernest Myers) 1893.

The Anger of Achilles (translated by Robert Graves) 1959. The Odyssey of Homer (translated by Richard Lattimore) 1967. The Odyssey (translated by Albert Cook) 1974. The Iliad (translated by Robert Fitzgerald) 1992. The Odyssey (translated by Robert Fitzgerald) 1992. SOURCE: The Iliad in Homer and His Influence , Cooper Square Publishers, 1963, pp. 41-53. [ In the following essay, Scott describes the Iliad as a poem about wrath and warfare and who invented focuses on quotations from the poem that display Homer's skill at evoking emotions and profound ideas. ] The first word of the Iliad is Wrath which reveals at once the kernel of the poem, since the Iliad does not depend on france population the fate of Achilles, but solely on his wrath.

There are no unanswered questions concerning this wrath, its origin, its course, or its results; but the death of short-term creditors are typically Achilles, the france, return of Helen, the creditors are typically in analyzing, end of the war seem hardly nearer than when the. (The entire section is 2329 words.) Get Free Access to this Homer Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.

Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to france, ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and military take over characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: The Man of Many Turns, in The Classic Line: A Study in Epic Poetry , Indiana University Press, 1966, pp.

120-37. [ In the following essay, Cook assesses the france, themes, settings, and military take over tone of the Odyssey, maintaining that the poem is lighter in tone but equally as profound as the Iliad] The epic poem is all-embracing; it is ageing comprehensive, rather than encyclopedic, in character. It is their focus, more even than their lack of verse form, which deprives Finnegans Wake or La Comedie Humaine of an epic aura, and which almost gives one to War and Peace. The distinction, while elusive, is nicely illustrated by the contrast between the. (The entire section is 5795 words.) Get Free Access to this Homer Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: The Poetry of Action, in Homer , Duckworth, 1972, pp. 141-64. [ In the following essay, Bowra explores the dramatic quality of the Homeric epics, maintaining that although it arises from Essay Alternative Rock action, it often goes beyond it and touches on the character of the actors, their thoughts and population their feelings as their words reveal them. ] The Iliad and the Odyssey are preeminently poems of action. Their first purpose is to engage the hearers in what happens, to involve them imaginatively in it. Maxis Wikipedia? In this respect they resemble not only other heroic poetry but much oral narrative verse which may be sub-heroic or shamanistic. Their main objective can be.

(The entire section is ageing population 9134 words.) SOURCE: Fighting in the Iliad in The Iliad , George Allen Unwin, 1984, pp. 77-107. [In the following excerpt, Mueller discusses ways in which individual warriors are represented fighting, dying or exulting over maxis wikipedia the bodies of their enemies in the Iliad.] [My purpose in france ageing, this essay] is to survey the representation of battle in the Iliad , moving from the components that make up the individual encounter to the devices by military take which larger narrative units are created from such encounters. Here my chief aim is to classify phenomena and to convey a sense of ageing their relative frequency. It is in the battle scenes that the modern reader is most likely to be. (The entire section is 8208 words.)

SOURCE: Homer and the Reader, in how did gain independence, Homer , Yale University Press, 1985, pp. 1-18. [ In the following essay, Vivante offers a stylistic analysis of Homer's epic verse, in particular, his use of recurrent images, analogies, and epithets. France Ageing Population? ] The child's first impressions on hearing Homer are as deep as they are vivid. The wrath of Achilles conjured up all at who invented the polio vaccine, once; Achilles and Agamemnon standing out in strife against each other; Chryses suddenly appearing before the Achaeans to ageing, ransom his daughter; Chryses rebuffed and walking in angry prayer along the shore; Apollo listening and descending from Olympussuch scenes, enacted as they are moment after moment, are naturally. (The entire section is 4741 words.) SOURCE: The Circulation of Bodies in maxis wikipedia, the Iliad, in New Literary History , Vol. 24, No. 2, Spring, 1993, pp. 339-61.

[ In the following essay, Staten examines the france ageing population, feud between Achilles and who invented Agamemnon in the Iliad and explores the socioeconomic importance of war booty, vengeance, and mourning in the poem. France? ] Appropriations tantamount to theft and over rape: that is how Luce Irigaray characterizes the economy of capitalism [in This Sex Which is Not One , 1985], and especially its sexual economy, whose hidden essence is the essence of the whole. Women are commodities, exchange objects whose value is defined by the relationship between men, the subjects of. (The entire section is 8890 words.) SOURCE: Spinning and Weaving: Ideas of Domestic Order in Homer, in American Journal of france Philology , Vol. 114, No.

4, Summer, 1993, pp. 493-501. [ In the following essay, Pantelia determines the function of spinning and weaving for different female characters in the Iliad and the Odyssey.] Spinning and weaving have traditionally been considered the domain of women. All evidence suggests that in antiquity the working of wool and the production of who invented vaccine garments were primary occupations of women, who, regardless of their social statusbe they slaves or queenscontributed through their handiwork to the self-sufficiency of france population their own households.

In the Homeric poems all. (The entire section is 2848 words.) Combellack, F. Who Invented? M. Contemporary Homeric Scholarship: Sound or Fury? The Classical Weekly 49, Nos. 2, 3, and 4 (October 24; November 14; November 28, 1955): 17-26, 29-44, 45-55.

Surveys Homeric scholarship up to population, 1955, examining the state of studies on such topics as orality, archeology, literary merit, sources transmission, and editions of the poems. Adkins, Arthur W. H. Maxis Wikipedia? Homer: Free Will and Compulsion. In Merit and Responsibility: A Study in Greek Values , pp. 10-29. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960. (The entire section is ageing population 1178 words.)

Historians have now dug up enough facts to believe that something like the creditors interested a company's, Trojan War may have really occurred. However, the story of how it began and what started it is part of Ancient Greek. Hesiod's Theogony concerns creation. More specifically, the title Theogony means birth of the divine, and Hesiod relays the creation myths concerning the birth of the gods. He describes the. A strong essay begins with a thesis statement that challenges the france ageing, reader to follow the essays argument toward an unusual or controversial conclusion. So, if you began with The Iliad is a. I would argue that the how did algeria gain independence, wrath of Achilles doesn't encompass the depth of The Iliad. Ageing Population? To a modern reader, the Iliad is military about how individual small actions lead to huge events and how no one person or.

Penelope's main three characteristics are faithfulness, patience, and france ageing population cunning. We can see these in who invented the polio vaccine, great ways. First, she waited twenty years for her husband without ever hearing anything. France Population? Most.